Gymnocephalus cernua, Ruffe : fisheries, gamefish, bait

Gymnocephalus cernua (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ruffe
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Gymnocephalus cernua
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Percoidei (Perchs) > Percidae (Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 2 - 85 m (Ref. 121625).   溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 13371); 74°N - 43°N, 6°W - 169°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe: Caspian, Black, Baltic and North Sea basins; Great Britain; north to about 69° N in Scandinavia. Asia: Aral Sea basin, Arctic Ocean basin eastward to Kolyma drainage. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
歐洲: 法國到西伯利亞東部與到科力馬河河。 最近在湖上方與密西根州中建立了。 (參考文獻 3814) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 10.5  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length : 12.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大体重: 400.00 g (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11 - 19; 背的软条 (总数): 11-16; 臀棘 2; 臀鳍软条: 5 - 6; 脊椎骨: 35 - 36. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth 24-27% SL. Differs further from other members of the genus by the combination of having a flank yellowish with numerous, small, irregular, dark blotches and having 11-16 dorsal spines (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 16 to 17 rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fins are fused. Color brownish with dark spots (Ref. 35388).
尾鳍有 16 到 17个鳍条。 (参考文献 40476) 背鳍被融合。 色彩褐色的有深色的斑点.(参考文献 35388)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits eutrophic lakes, lowland and piedmont rivers. Most abundant in estuaries of large rivers, brackish lakes with salinities up to 10-12 ppt and reservoirs. In general, its abundance increases with increased eutrophication (Ref. 59043). Reported to prefer still or slow-flowing water with soft bottom and without vegetation (Ref. 59043) and deep water with deposits of sand and gravel (Ref. 9696). Can tolerate some degradation of the environment (Ref. 30578). Can co-exist in deep lakes with Perca fluviatilis. Both species partly occur at different depths with Gymnocephalus cernua being more abundant in deeper layers (Ref. 59043). The membranous external walls of the head canals of this species provide high directional sensitivity; can feed at night in the dark using the lateral line system; feeds on zooplankton, chironomids, oligochaetes and amphipods (Ref. 10999). Pelagic in coastal lakes and tidal estuaries, preying on zooplankton and fish. Spawns on a variety of substrates at depths of about 3 m or less (Ref. 59043). White to yellow eggs in sticky strands are found on rocks and weed in shallow water (Ref. 41678). Used as bait for pike (Ref. 6258). Females live up to 10 year while males up to 7 years (Ref. 59043).

栖息于溪流的湖,静止的池水与边缘。 偏爱深水域,有沙与碎石沈积层的地方.(参考文献 9696) 这种的头部渠道的膜状外部墙壁提供高的方向敏感; 能在黑暗中吃在晚上使用侧线系统; 吃浮游动物,宝刀鱼,蠕虫与片脚类动物。 (参考文献 10999) 在黏黏的滨的白色到黄色的卵在浅水区中栖息于岩石与杂草。 (参考文献 41678) 作为钓矛的鱼饵了。 (参考文献 6258) 能容忍一些环境的恶化。 (参考文献 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Eggs turn adhesive on contact with water and stick to stones or plants. Females lay eggs in two or more portions, usually separated by about 30 days in summer. First portion of eggs is larger the second portion. Larvae without or with only a brief, pelagic larval stage, switching early to benthic life, secretive and solitary, not forming schools. Larval survival is poor below 10°C and above 20°C (Ref. 59043).歐洲: 法國到西伯利亞東部與到科力馬河河。 最近在湖上方與密西根州中建立了。 (參考文獻 3814) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  可能有害的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 诱饵: usually
FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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特别资料

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网络资源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00892 - 0.01071), b=2.99 (2.96 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.8 (2.3 - 5.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 21 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.1-0.48; tm=1-2).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 44 [20, 91] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.287 [0.151, 0.552] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [15.5, 18.5] % ; Omega3 = 1 [0, 3] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.5 [4.0, 28.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 54.9 [14.4, 216.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.02 [0.58, 1.68] mg/100g (wet weight);