Lampetra fluviatilis, River lamprey : fisheries, bait

Lampetra fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)

River lamprey
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Lampetra fluviatilis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Lampetra fluviatilis
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Petromyzonti > Petromyzontiformes (Lampreys) 七鰓鰻目 (Lampreys) > Petromyzontidae (Northern lampreys) 七鰓鰻科 (Northern lampreys) > Lampetrinae
Etymology: Lampetra: Latin, lambere = lick + Greek,petra = stone, with allusion to the lamprey attaching itself to stones (Ref. 45335). Latin, lambendis petris, which means to suck rocks (Ref. 89241);  fluviatilis: Refers to the type locality, Lake Ladoga, Russia.  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 59043); 深度上下限 10 - ? m.   溫帶; 5°C - 18°C (Ref. 12468); 69°N - 38°N, 11°W - 29°E (Ref. 59043)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: southern Norway to France, including Ireland and the British Isles. Also in the Baltic Sea and along the French and western Italian coasts of the Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 59043). Absent from Black, Caspian and Polar seas (Ref. 3161). Landlocked populations from Lake Mjosa in Norway (Ref. 12269), Lakes Ladoga and Onega, upper Volga in Russia, Loch Lomond in Scotland, some Finnish lakes and possibly in Lough Neagh in Ireland (Ref. 59043). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (2002). Annex II (excluding Finnish and Swedish populations) and Annex V of the EC Habitats Directive (2007). Protected by law in the Netherlands (Ref. 12269).
歐洲: 沿岸水域與地中海西北方的河, 沿著歐洲的大西洋的海岸,北海與波羅的海的全部。 黑海里海和北極海沒有出現。 (參考文獻 3161) 在 Loch Lomond 流域,蘇格蘭,湖 Mjosa ,挪威的淡水居留族群, 俄國的Onega 湖與 Ladgoa 湖的一些芬蘭的湖與流域.(參考文獻 12269) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 在荷蘭藉著法律被保護。 (參考文獻 12269) 在法國藉著法律被保護。 (參考文獻 40476)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 36.6, range 32 - 34 cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); common length : 35.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); common length :32 cm TL (female); 最大體重: 150.00 g (Ref. 40476); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 30578)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. It is jawless with a round sucker-like mouth and has an outer circle of small teeth and an inner circle of large teeth (Ref. 88171). It has a typical eel-like shape with 2 dorsal fins and 7 gill openings behind the eye. It lacks paired fins. Young adults are uniformly greyish in colour. As it ages, the river lamprey becomes greenish-brown dorsally, golden yellow along the sides and white ventrally (Ref. 58137). In coastal waters of Germany, it can be confused with the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), which is distinguished by having its teeth arranged in many consecutive circular rows (Ref. 88171). Other diagnostic features: Adults 8.6-49.2 cm TL. Body wet weight in individuals 18.0-49.2 cm TL, 30-150 g. Body proportions, as percentage of TL (based on 48 specimens measuring 10.8-38.6 cm TL): prebranchial length, 10.0-12.9; branchial length, 7.9-11.3; trunk length, 46.2-54.3; tail length, 24.1-30.3; eye length, 1.4-3.1; disc length, 4.6-7.0. Urogenital papilla length, as a percentage of branchial length, in 19 spawning males measuring 19.7-28.3 cm TL, 15.9-37.5. Trunk myomeres, 58-66. Dentition: marginals, 70-95; supraoral lamina, 2 unicuspid teeth; infraoral lamina, 5-9 either all unicuspid teeth or, more frequently, the lateralmost are bicuspid and the internal ones unicuspid; 3 endolaterals on each side; endolateral formula, typically 2-3-2, rarely 1-3-2 or 2-3-1; 1-2 rows of anterials; first row of anterials, 4-7 unicuspid teeth; exolaterals absent; posterials absent; transverse lingual lamina, 8-18, usually 12-14, unicuspid laminae straight or parentheses-shaped and each with 9-13 unicuspid teeth. Marginal membrane present. Velar tentacles, 4-10, with tubercles; no velar wings. Body coloration in recently metamorphosed individuals silvery; in preserved upstream migrants, bluish brown or lead gray on the dorsal aspect tending towards silvery on the lateral aspects and whitish or yellowish on ventral aspect. Early upstream spawning migrants returning from the sea have a bronze sheen. Dorsal fins of maturing individuals may have a purplish tint. Iris is golden yellow. Body coloration in the landlocked population in Lake Ladoga is completely black. Lateral line neuromasts unpigmented or darkly pigmented. Extent of caudal fin pigmentation, absent or trace in young adults and 75% or more in spawning individuals. Caudal fin shape, spade-like. Oral fimbriae, 84-112. Oral papillae, 11-20 (Ref. 89241).
鰻魚狀的身體.(參考文獻 51442) 二個連續的背鰭.(參考文獻 51442) 在有吸盤的嘴中排列獨特的銳利齒.(參考文獻 2163) 褐色的背面兩側不有大理石花紋。 (參考文獻 51442) 它的側邊是金黃色的,而且腹的部分是白色的。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

In fresh waters, in rivers, brooks, and lakes. Anadromous, but some populations are permanent freshwater residents (e.g. Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland (UK); Loch Lomond, Scotland (UK); lakes Ladoga and Onega, Russian Federation) (Ref. 89241). Amphihaline species (Ref. 51442). Metamorphosis takes place at a length of about 13 cm and they migrate to the sea (Ref. 51442). Most river lampreys live 4-7 years and reach 30-35 cm length (Ref. 88187). Females grow larger than males (Ref. 58137). Adults spend 1-2 years at sea, often along the coast or in estuaries (Ref. 59043). They live on hard bottoms or attached to larger fish like cod and herring (Ref. 88174). Adults are parasitic, feeding on fishes by sucking their blood and afterwards consuming the flesh (Ref. 1998). Adults predatory on marine fishes from the end of July to October. Trematodes and cestodes have been found in the intestine of prespawning adults at sea. (Ref. 89241). In autumn, adults commonly undergo reproductive migration from the sea to shallow middle or upper reaches of rivers and streams with strong currents (1.0-2.0 m/s in British rivers) and gravel bottoms (Ref. 51442, 59043, 88171). Spawning migration upriver (Vistula and Neman rivers) begins near the end of September in the Baltic Sea Basin. In tributaries to the Gulf of Finland (Narva, Neva, and Luga rivers), upstream spawning migrations occur twice yearly; once in summer-fall and once in spring. In the upper Rhine River, the spawning season is February to April; in England (UK) from April to May; and in the lower Neva River, Russian Federation, from early June to early July (Ref. 89241). During reproductive migration and reproduction, adults do not feed but instead utilize their lipid reserves (Ref. 30578) and are known to undergo a considerable shortening of up to 27 per cent (Ref. 83507). Fecundity is highly variable and ranges from 650 to 42,500 eggs/female; 10,000-16,000 eggs/female in Lake Ladoga. Communal spawning in the same redd by L. fluviatilis and L. planeri has been reported in the River Tywi Basin, Wales (UK), in April, at a water temperature of 11 °C. Both species participated in constructing a redd about 23 cm in diameter and 5-8 cm deep, consisting of pebbles, gravel and coarse sand (Ref. 89241). Spawning takes place in pre-excavated pits in river beds, its depth between 50-100 cm; after spawning the adults die (Ref. 51442). The blind ammocoetes are filter feeders of detritus and microorganisms; they live mostly buried in sand, silt or clay sediments for up to 4.5 years, often at the edges of rivers and streams where currents are slow (Ref. 51442, 59043, 88184, 88185). Sometimes they are found in substrates with submerged vegetation and plant debris (Ref. 12285). Ammocoetes may tolerate low oxygen levels but when burrows reach near anoxic levels, the larvae need to emerge from the substrate in order to survive (Ref. 88184). Fisheries exist in England (UK), Finland, France, and the Russian Federation. In the 19th century, up to 450,000 adults yearly were used by the English fishing fleet as bait in the fisheries for Gadus morhua and Psetta maxima. In Finland, the catch in 1983 was 2.3-2.4 million individuals (about 100 t) for a value of $800,000 US. There are reports of intoxication through eating this species (Halstead 1967). The mucus and serum are poisonous and the flesh must be thoroughly washed and all the blood removed before consumption (Ref. 5504). Cooking method involves de-sliming, removal of heads and branchial regions, the rest of the body covered in sunflower flour, and cooked in sunflower oil (Ref.89241). Utilized fresh and smoked; eaten fried (Ref. 9988).

Amphihaline 種.(參考文獻 51442) 成魚生活在海洋中, 但是不當遠離如 海七鰓鰻〔Petromyzon marinus〕 的海岸線.(參考文獻 51442) 秋天時,成魚通常歷經生殖洄游距離海洋到河。 (參考文獻 51442) 在生殖洄游與繁殖的時候,成魚不進食但是改為利用他們的預留的脂質.(參考文獻 30578) 產卵發生於在河床預先挖窪凹, 在 50 公分與 1 公尺之間的它的深度; 在 spwaning之後成魚死.(參考文獻 51442) 盲眼的 ammocoetes 仔魚是濾食者而且大部份生活埋藏在河床之中。 (參考文獻 51442) 銳變發生,在體長大約 13 公分與他們迴游到海洋。 (參考文獻 51442) 稚魚然後生活在海洋中在那裡它們發育與成長至少年.(參考文獻 30578) 成魚吃 , 魚吸取他們的血液而且然後啃食肉。 (參考文獻 1998) 黏液與血清是有毒的,而且肉一定要徹底地被沖刷與在消費之前被移動的所有血液.(參考文獻 5504) 燻製或新鮮使用; 油炸後食用.(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Adults migrate from the sea to the rivers to spawn (Ref. 51442), ascending rivers at night, anytime between autumn and spring but this movement ceases when water temperature drops (Ref. 59043). During the early stages of its spawning migration, the river lamprey has been shown to be attracted to chemical odours given off by ammocoetes (Ref. 88188). Males reach the spawning grounds first and build nests at depths between 50-100 cm, which have a diameter of 20-40 cm and a height of 10 cm (Ref. 12285, 51442, 59043, 88186). The river lamprey forms spawning aggregations, often during sunny days, when water temperature rises above 9 °C (Ref. 59043). Females may spawn with up to 6 males on separate occasions. One nest is usually utilized by a single mating pair (Ref. 59043). Adults spawn only once in their lifetime and usually die within 2 weeks after spawning (Ref. 12285, 51442). Eggs hatch in 15-30 days (Ref. 88184). The ammocoetes live in the calm zones of the river until metamorphosis at about 13 cm length before migrating to the sea (Ref. 51442).歐洲: 沿岸水域與地中海西北方的河, 沿著歐洲的大西洋的海岸,北海與波羅的海的全部。 黑海里海和北極海沒有出現。 (參考文獻 3161) 在 Loch Lomond 流域,蘇格蘭,湖 Mjosa ,挪威的淡水居留族群, 俄國的Onega 湖與 Ladgoa 湖的一些芬蘭的湖與流域.(參考文獻 12269) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 在荷蘭藉著法律被保護。 (參考文獻 12269) 在法國藉著法律被保護。 (參考文獻 40476)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Vladykov, V.D., 1984. Petromyzonidae. p. 64-67. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen, and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 1. (Ref. 3161)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated


  有毒 (Ref. 5504)


漁業: 低經濟; 誘餌: usually
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.2 - 12.2, mean 9.8 °C (based on 394 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00120 (0.00069 - 0.00210), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=4-6; tmax=10; Fec = 4,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 27.6 [4.3, 86.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.324 [0.131, 0.750] mg/100g ; Protein = 2.97 [0.00, 6.69] % ; Omega3 = 1.11 [0.47, 2.77] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.7 [2.0, 41.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 49 [13, 181] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.577 [0.282, 1.327] mg/100g (wet weight);