Salmo marmoratus : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Salmo marmoratus Cuvier, 1829

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Salmo marmoratus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 居於水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   溫帶; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 11241); 47°N - 43°N, 7°E - 20°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe: Adriatic basin from Po (only northern tributaries) to Soca and Rizana drainages (Italy, Slovenia). Introduced in Tevere drainage in Italy. Molecular data suggest that populations identified as Salmo marmoratus from Neretva drainage (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia) and most likely those from Lake Skadar basin and Drin to Shkumbin drainages (Montenegro, Albania, Kosovoa, Macedonia) represent another species, as yet unidentified. Records from Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Albania may be other subspecies of Adriatic trout and not of this marble trout (Lucijan Rejec, lrejec@ribiska-druzina-tolmin.si, pers.comm. 07/09).
歐洲: 義大利北部, 斯洛維尼亞與克羅埃西亞,蒙特內哥羅與阿爾巴尼亞的亞得里亞海流域。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); 最大體重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

Distinguished from all congeners in Adriatic basin by having the following unique characters: body silvery to olive-green with irregular brown lines forming a marbled pattern; and no parr marks in individuals larger than 6 cm SL. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: red spots confined to lateral line, absent in some individuals and populations; opercle with brownish blotches or lines; head length 22-25% SL; eye diameter 1.7-2.2 times in interorbital distance, 3.1-4.3 times in postorbital length (at 25-35 cm SL) (Ref. 59043).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits cold streams and rivers in montane and piedmont landscapes with temperature usually not rising above 15° C during summer (Ref. 59043). Occurs over sandy and gravelly bottoms of running or standing clean and cold waters in the upper courses of Alpine rivers and glacial lakes (Ref. 12291). Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, shifting to fish diet when adult. Spawns in gravel of rivers and streams with swift water (0.4-0.5 m/s) at moderate depth (0.6-0.8 m). Lives up to at least 10 years. Threatened due to hybridization with introduced Salmo trutta and Salmo cenerinus, pollution, overfishing and river regulation. Only a few pure populations remain and stocking of pure strains has improved the situation. Conservation status is under least concern category, but might return to a threatened category if conservation measures end (Ref. 59043).

在高山河與冰的湖上游中發生在流動或靜止清澈與寒冷水域的碎石與沙質底部的一個長命的種。 它的存在範圍被棲息地破壞與其他魚種的引入縮小的。 (參考文獻 12291) 最大體長 (Bogdan Dresler , pers. comm。,2000)。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Does not undertake spawning migrations or undertake migrations only at very short distances. Individuals foraging in lakes move to lake tributaries to spawn. Males begin occupying spawning grounds about one week before females. Eggs hatch in about 45 days. Alevins commence feeding 59-63 days after spawning at 10° C (Ref. 59043).歐洲: 義大利北部, 斯洛維尼亞與克羅埃西亞,蒙特內哥羅與阿爾巴尼亞的亞得里亞海流域。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 124695)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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網路資源

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00495 - 0.02215), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.