Salmo marmoratus : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Salmo marmoratus Cuvier, 1829

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Salmo marmoratus
Picture by Dresler, B.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水 居于水底的; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   溫帶; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 11241); 47°N - 43°N, 7°E - 20°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe: Adriatic basin from Po (only northern tributaries) to Soca and Rizana drainages (Italy, Slovenia). Introduced in Tevere drainage in Italy. Molecular data suggest that populations identified as Salmo marmoratus from Neretva drainage (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia) and most likely those from Lake Skadar basin and Drin to Shkumbin drainages (Montenegro, Albania, Kosovoa, Macedonia) represent another species, as yet unidentified. Records from Croatia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Albania may be other subspecies of Adriatic trout and not of this marble trout (Lucijan Rejec, lrejec@ribiska-druzina-tolmin.si, pers.comm. 07/09).
歐洲: 義大利北部, 斯洛維尼亞與克羅埃西亞,蒙特內哥羅與阿爾巴尼亞的亞得里亞海流域。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); 最大体重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 59043); 最大年龄: 10 年 (Ref. 59043)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

Distinguished from all congeners in Adriatic basin by having the following unique characters: body silvery to olive-green with irregular brown lines forming a marbled pattern; and no parr marks in individuals larger than 6 cm SL. Differs further by the combination of the following characters: red spots confined to lateral line, absent in some individuals and populations; opercle with brownish blotches or lines; head length 22-25% SL; eye diameter 1.7-2.2 times in interorbital distance, 3.1-4.3 times in postorbital length (at 25-35 cm SL) (Ref. 59043).

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits cold streams and rivers in montane and piedmont landscapes with temperature usually not rising above 15° C during summer (Ref. 59043). Occurs over sandy and gravelly bottoms of running or standing clean and cold waters in the upper courses of Alpine rivers and glacial lakes (Ref. 12291). Feeds on a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, shifting to fish diet when adult. Spawns in gravel of rivers and streams with swift water (0.4-0.5 m/s) at moderate depth (0.6-0.8 m). Lives up to at least 10 years. Threatened due to hybridization with introduced Salmo trutta and Salmo cenerinus, pollution, overfishing and river regulation. Only a few pure populations remain and stocking of pure strains has improved the situation. Conservation status is under least concern category, but might return to a threatened category if conservation measures end (Ref. 59043).

在高山河与冰的湖上游中发生在流动或静止清澈与寒冷水域的碎石与沙质底部的一个长命的种。 它的存在范围被栖息地破坏与其他鱼种的引入缩小的。 (参考文献 12291) 最大体长 (Bogdan Dresler , pers. comm。,2000)。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Does not undertake spawning migrations or undertake migrations only at very short distances. Individuals foraging in lakes move to lake tributaries to spawn. Males begin occupying spawning grounds about one week before females. Eggs hatch in about 45 days. Alevins commence feeding 59-63 days after spawning at 10° C (Ref. 59043).歐洲: 義大利北部, 斯洛維尼亞與克羅埃西亞,蒙特內哥羅與阿爾巴尼亞的亞得里亞海流域。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 124695)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00495 - 0.02215), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.