Alburnus alburnus, Bleak : fisheries, aquaculture, bait

Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bleak
上传你的 图片 和 影像
Pictures | Videos | 谷歌图片
Image of Alburnus alburnus (Bleak)
Alburnus alburnus
Picture by Lorenzoni, M.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Alburnus: From the city of Al Bura, where the fish was known (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 10 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - ? m (Ref. 30578).   溫帶; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 68°N - 35°N, 6°W - 60°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: most of Europe north of Caucasus, Pyrénées and Alps, eastward to Ural and Emba. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic and Aegean basins (except Maritza drainage), Italy, Ireland, Great Britain (except southeast), Norway and Scandinavia north of 67°N, Caspian basin south of Volga. In Anatolia, Marmara basin. Locally introduced in Spain, Portugal and Italy. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
歐洲: 法國到烏拉河與 Emba.(參考文獻 33550) 記錄來自義大利 (參考文獻 27118) 與希臘了。 (參考文獻 27610) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 9.9, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30578); common length : 15.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30578); 最大体重: 60.00 g (Ref. 30578)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 2 - 4; 背的软条 (总数): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 14 - 20; 脊椎骨: 41 - 44. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the possession of the following characters: origin of anal fin below branched dorsal rays 4-5; lateral line with 45-48 + 3 scales; anal fin with 17-20½ branched rays; 16-22 gill rakers; ventral keel exposed from anus to pelvic base; lateral stripe absent in life, faint or absent in preserved specimens; and mouth slightly superior (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Also Ref. 40476.
尾鳍有 19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196) 也参考文献 40476.

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits open waters of lakes and medium to large rivers. Forms large aggregations in backwaters and other still waters during winter. Adults occur in shoals near the surface. Larvae live in littoral zone of rivers and lakes while juveniles leave shores and occupy a pelagic habitat, feeding on plankton, drifting insects or invertebrates fallen on the water surface (Ref. 59043). Feeds mainly on plankton, including crustaceans (Ref. 30578) and insects (Ref. 9696). Spawns in shallow riffles or along stony shores of lakes, occasionally above submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Excellent as bait for carnivorous fishes. May be captured using the smallest hook and a fly as bait. Its flesh is tasty (Ref. 30578). Of little interest to commercial or sport fisheries in its native range because of its small size (Ref. 1739). Scales were previously utilized in making Essence d"Orient, a coating for artificial pearls (Ref. 59043).

出现于浅滩接近水表面。 主要吃浮游生物, 包括甲壳动物 (参考文献 30578) 与昆虫。 (参考文献 9696) 优良的当作钓肉食性的鱼的鱼饵。 可以用最小的钩与用毛钩当饵捕获。 它的肉是好吃的。 (参考文献 30578) 在它的原产地的经济渔业或游钓渔业对它少有兴趣由于它的体型小.(参考文献 1739)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Eggs hatch in about 4 days (Ref. 59043). 歐洲: 法國到烏拉河與 Emba.(參考文獻 33550) 記錄來自義大利 (參考文獻 27118) 與希臘了。 (參考文獻 27610) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

可能有害的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 养殖: 商业性; 诱饵: usually
FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource |

更多信息

参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Nutrients
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

工具

特别资料

下载 XML

网络资源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00512 - 0.00743), b=3.12 (3.09 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.7   ±0.29 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=2-3; K=0.19; tmax=7; Fec=1,500).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.