Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; sötvatten; brackvatten bentopelagisk; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 10 - ?; flodvandrande (Ref. 51243); djupintervall 1 - ? m (Ref. 30578). Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 68°N - 35°N, 6°W - 60°E
Europe and Asia: most of Europe north of Caucasus, Pyrénées and Alps, eastward to Ural and Emba. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic and Aegean basins (except Maritza drainage), Italy, Ireland, Great Britain (except southeast), Norway and Scandinavia north of 67°N, Caspian basin south of Volga. In Anatolia, Marmara basin. Locally introduced in Spain, Portugal and Italy. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.9, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 30578); common length : 15.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 30578); publicerad maxvikt: 60.00 g (Ref. 30578)
Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 2 - 4; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 7-9; Taggstrålar i analfenan 3; Mjukstrålar i analfenan: 14 - 20; Ryggkotor: 41 - 44. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the possession of the following characters: origin of anal fin below branched dorsal rays 4-5; lateral line with 45-48 + 3 scales; anal fin with 17-20½ branched rays; 16-22 gill rakers; ventral keel exposed from anus to pelvic base; lateral stripe absent in life, faint or absent in preserved specimens; and mouth slightly superior (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Also Ref. 40476.
Inhabits open waters of lakes and medium to large rivers. Forms large aggregations in backwaters and other still waters during winter. Adults occur in shoals near the surface. Larvae live in littoral zone of rivers and lakes while juveniles leave shores and occupy a pelagic habitat, feeding on plankton, drifting insects or invertebrates fallen on the water surface (Ref. 59043). Feeds mainly on plankton, including crustaceans (Ref. 30578) and insects (Ref. 9696). Spawns in shallow riffles or along stony shores of lakes, occasionally above submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Excellent as bait for carnivorous fishes. May be captured using the smallest hook and a fly as bait. Its flesh is tasty (Ref. 30578). Of little interest to commercial or sport fisheries in its native range because of its small size (Ref. 1739). Scales were previously utilized in making Essence d"Orient, a coating for artificial pearls (Ref. 59043).
Eggs hatch in about 4 days (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fiskeri: mindre kommeriell; Vattenbruk: kommersiell; bete: usually
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00512 - 0.00743), b=3.12 (3.09 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179
): Mellan, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 1,4-4,4 år (tm=2-3; K=0.19; tmax=7; Fec=1,500).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .