Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Sống nổi và đáy; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 10 - ?; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 1 - ? m (Ref. 30578). Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 68°N - 35°N, 6°W - 60°E
Europe and Asia: most of Europe north of Caucasus, Pyrénées and Alps, eastward to Ural and Emba. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic and Aegean basins (except Maritza drainage), Italy, Ireland, Great Britain (except southeast), Norway and Scandinavia north of 67°N, Caspian basin south of Volga. In Anatolia, Marmara basin. Locally introduced in Spain, Portugal and Italy. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 9.9, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 30578); common length : 15.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 30578); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 60.00 g (Ref. 30578)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 2 - 4; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 7-9; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 14 - 20; Động vật có xương sống: 41 - 44. Diagnosed from congeners in Europe by the possession of the following characters: origin of anal fin below branched dorsal rays 4-5; lateral line with 45-48 + 3 scales; anal fin with 17-20½ branched rays; 16-22 gill rakers; ventral keel exposed from anus to pelvic base; lateral stripe absent in life, faint or absent in preserved specimens; and mouth slightly superior (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Also Ref. 40476.
Inhabits open waters of lakes and medium to large rivers. Forms large aggregations in backwaters and other still waters during winter. Adults occur in shoals near the surface. Larvae live in littoral zone of rivers and lakes while juveniles leave shores and occupy a pelagic habitat, feeding on plankton, drifting insects or invertebrates fallen on the water surface (Ref. 59043). Feeds mainly on plankton, including crustaceans (Ref. 30578) and insects (Ref. 9696). Spawns in shallow riffles or along stony shores of lakes, occasionally above submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Excellent as bait for carnivorous fishes. May be captured using the smallest hook and a fly as bait. Its flesh is tasty (Ref. 30578). Of little interest to commercial or sport fisheries in its native range because of its small size (Ref. 1739). Scales were previously utilized in making Essence d"Orient, a coating for artificial pearls (Ref. 59043).
Eggs hatch in about 4 days (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Các nghề cá: buôn bán nhỏ; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; mồi: usually
Các công cụ
Các nguồn internet
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00512 - 0.00743), b=3.12 (3.09 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.29 se; based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (tm=2-3; K=0.19; tmax=7; Fec=1,500).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .