Chondrostoma variabile, Volga undermouth

Chondrostoma variabile Yakovlev, 1870

Volga undermouth
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drawing shows typical species in Leuciscidae.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Chondrostoma: Greek, chondros = cartilage + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). Name referring to the characteristic horny layer on the lower lip (Ref. 57917).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性.   溫帶

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: Capian basin, in Emba, Ural and Volga drainages (with Oka and Kama); Black Sea basin, in Don drainage.
前蘇聯。 已知來自聶伯河,頓河,窩瓦河,烏拉河與 Emba了。 (參考文獻 27763)

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1441); 最大年齡: 7 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

Diagnosed from congeners in Black and Caspian Sea basins by having straight or slightly arched mouth, 9½ branched dorsal rays, 50-62 scales on lateral line, usually 10½ branched anal rays, and large eye, diameter 50-65% of interorbital distance (Ref. 59043).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in lowland and piedmont rivers with moderate to strong current and in reservoirs. Commonly found in river main courses in rapids, sandy shallows and river curves. Larvae and juveniles with superior mouth prey on small invertebrates. After 3-4 months, juveniles measuring about 3-3.5 cm SL change to adult feeding mode and graze benthic diatoms and detritus from hard substrate in habitats with strong currents. Breeds on gravel or rock bottom in shallow riffles of larger rivers or in smaller tributaries with moderate to strong current. Most of the year in the middle and upper stretches of rivers, moves to lower stretches or to larger tributaries during winter. Deposits sticky eggs which adhere to gravel. (Ref. 59043).

棲息於河。 (參考文獻 1441,26334)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

前蘇聯。 已知來自聶伯河,頓河,窩瓦河,烏拉河與 Emba了。 (參考文獻 27763)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00271 - 0.01402), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .