Leuciscus aspius, Asp : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Leuciscus aspius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Asp
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Leuciscus aspius
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Leuciscus: Greek, leykiskos = white mullet (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - ? m (Ref. 30578).   溫帶; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 66°N - 35°N, 3°E - 72°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Baltic Sea (southern tributaries, Norway east of Oslo, southern Sweden, Kokemären drainage in southern Finland), Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea; Aegean Sea basin, from Maritza to Lake Volvi drainages. Absent in Black Sea basin south of Danube and Rioni (Georgia) drainages, but present in Turkey west of Ankara. Introduced in Rhine, Northern Dvina and Lake Balkhash (Asia) (Ref. 59043). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). The subspecies Aspius aspius iblioides was previously recognized by authors for the Aral Sea (Ref. 13403).
歐洲的水域, 除了丹麥,法國,英國,瑞士與區域南部。 (參考文獻 9696) 大河對北海 (費斯 , 易北河) ,波羅的海 (支流南部挪威奧斯陸,瑞典南部以東, Kokemaren 流域在南方的芬蘭中) ,黑海,亞速海與裡海注入; 愛琴海流域, 從 Maritza 到湖 Volvi 流域。 在萊茵河, 北方德維納河與巴爾喀什湖 (亞洲) 引入。 (參考文獻 59043) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 亞種 Aspius aspius iblioides 為鹹海被命名者辨認出來了。 (參考文獻 13403)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35387); common length : 55.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); 最大體重: 9.0 kg (Ref. 556); 最大年齡: 11 年 (Ref. 40480)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 12 - 15. The only species of Aspius in Europe which can be diagnosed from other species of Cyprinidae in Europe by the following characters: anal fin with 12-14½ branched rays; scales on lateral line 64-76; maxilla extending beyond front margin of eye; and sharp keel between pelvic-fin and anal-fin origins covered by scales (Ref. 59043). Long shape body, laterally compressed with a long sharp head. Green back with silver to blue tints. Lighter flanks. Silver white belly. Pectoral, pelvic and anal fins grey to brown. Scale formula: 11-14/64-76/5-6 (Ref. 40476).
長的形狀身體, 側扁的具有一個長的銳利頭部。 綠色的背面有銀色的到藍色色彩。 顏色淡的側面。 銀白色的腹面。 胸鰭,腹鰭與臀鰭灰色的到褐色的。 數量公式: 11-14/64-76/5-6.(參考文獻 40476)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occur in open water of large and medium-sized lowland rivers and large lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults inhabit lower reaches of rivers and estuaries (Ref. 30578). Prefer to stay near bridge pillars, near tributaries, under weirs, in deep currents and overgrown parts of river and in quiet bays of river bends (Ref. 9696). One of the rare cyprinids which is piscivore; also prey on small aquatic birds. Juveniles are gregarious predators while adults hunt in small groups or are solitary. Juveniles and adults feed mainly on fish, especially on Alburnus alburnus or Osmerus eperlanus (Ref. 59043). Migrate upstream in tributaries for spawning in April-June (Ref. 556, 30578). Spawn in fast-flowing water on gravel or submerged vegetation. Lake populations migrate to tributaries; semi-anadromous populations or individuals (Terek) forage mainly in estuaries and freshened parts of the sea, migrating to rivers only for spawning. Begins spawning migration in second half of October (Terek) and overwinters in the lower reaches of river. Hybridizes with Leuciscus idus. Threatened due to alteration of river morphology (Ref. 59043).

成魚棲息於河川下游與河口。 (參考文獻 30578) 在河的深水流與過度發展的河段與河灣中平靜的灣中,在支流的附近,偏愛停留在橋柱子的附近,在魚樑下面。 (參考文獻 9696) 稀有鯉魚之一是魚食性; 也吃小的水生鳥。 為產卵在中在支流中向上游迴游四月-六月。 (參考文獻 556,30578) 稚魚與成魚主要以魚為食, 尤其在 Alburnus alburnus Osmerus eperlanus 上.(參考文獻 59043)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Sexual maturity is reached after 4-5 years (Ref. 2059). Reproductive success seems to be associated with low water level and high spring temperatures. Spawning occurs more than one season and lasts about 2 weeks. Deposits eggs which adhere to gravel or submerged plants (Ref. 59034).歐洲的水域, 除了丹麥,法國,英國,瑞士與區域南部。 (參考文獻 9696) 大河對北海 (費斯 , 易北河) ,波羅的海 (支流南部挪威奧斯陸,瑞典南部以東, Kokemaren 流域在南方的芬蘭中) ,黑海,亞速海與裡海注入; 愛琴海流域, 從 Maritza 到湖 Volvi 流域。 在萊茵河, 北方德維納河與巴爾喀什湖 (亞洲) 引入。 (參考文獻 59043) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 亞種 Aspius aspius iblioides 為鹹海被命名者辨認出來了。 (參考文獻 13403)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Vostradovsky, J., 1973. Freshwater fishes. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, London. 252 p. (Ref. 9696)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 養殖: 產生; 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00331 - 0.01740), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.80 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3-4; tmax=11; K=0.10-0.33; Fec = 50,000-1 million).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 68.1 [33.5, 138.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.514 [0.295, 0.939] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.4, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 1.51 [0.61, 3.73] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.7 [6.4, 46.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64 [17, 253] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.532 [0.349, 0.835] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.