分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(属, 种) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - ? m (Ref. 30578). 溫帶; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 66°N - 35°N, 3°E - 72°E
Europe and Asia: large rivers draining to North Sea (Weser, Elbe), Baltic Sea (southern tributaries, Norway east of Oslo, southern Sweden, Kokemären drainage in southern Finland), Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea; Aegean Sea basin, from Maritza to Lake Volvi drainages. Absent in Black Sea basin south of Danube and Rioni (Georgia) drainages, but present in Turkey west of Ankara. Introduced in Rhine, Northern Dvina and Lake Balkhash (Asia) (Ref. 59043). Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna). The subspecies Aspius aspius iblioides was previously recognized by authors for the Aral Sea (Ref. 13403).
歐洲的水域, 除了丹麥，法國，英國，瑞士與區域南部。 (參考文獻 9696) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 亞種 Aspius aspius iblioides 為鹹海被命名者辨認出來了。 (參考文獻 13403)
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 35387); common length : 55.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30578); 最大体重: 9.0 kg (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 11 年 (Ref. 40480)
背棘 (总数): 3; 背的软条 (总数): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 12 - 15. The only species of Aspius in Europe which can be diagnosed from other species of Cyprinidae in Europe by the following characters: anal fin with 12-14½ branched rays; scales on lateral line 64-76; maxilla extending beyond front margin of eye; and sharp keel between pelvic-fin and anal-fin origins covered by scales (Ref. 59043). Long shape body, laterally compressed with a long sharp head. Green back with silver to blue tints. Lighter flanks. Silver white belly. Pectoral, pelvic and anal fins grey to brown. Scale formula: 11-14/64-76/5-6 (Ref. 40476).
长的形状身体, 侧扁的具有一个长的锐利头部。 绿色的背面有银色的到蓝色色彩。 颜色淡的侧面。 银白色的腹面。 胸鳍，腹鳍与臀鳍灰色的到褐色的。 数量公式: 11-14/64-76/5-6.(参考文献 40476)
Occur in open water of large and medium-sized lowland rivers and large lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults inhabit lower reaches of rivers and estuaries (Ref. 30578). Prefer to stay near bridge pillars, near tributaries, under weirs, in deep currents and overgrown parts of river and in quiet bays of river bends (Ref. 9696). One of the rare cyprinids which is piscivore; also prey on small aquatic birds. Juveniles are gregarious predators while adults hunt in small groups or are solitary. Juveniles and adults feed mainly on fish, especially on Alburnus alburnus or Osmerus eperlanus (Ref. 59043). Migrate upstream in tributaries for spawning in April-June (Ref. 556, 30578). Spawn in fast-flowing water on gravel or submerged vegetation. Lake populations migrate to tributaries; semi-anadromous populations or individuals (Terek) forage mainly in estuaries and freshened parts of the sea, migrating to rivers only for spawning. Begins spawning migration in second half of October (Terek) and overwinters in the lower reaches of river. Hybridizes with Leuciscus idus. Threatened due to alteration of river morphology (Ref. 59043).
栖息于河川下游与河口。 (参考文献 30578) 在河的深水流与过度发展的河段与河湾中平静的湾中,在支流的附近，偏爱停留在桥柱子的附近,在鱼梁下面。 (参考文献 9696) 鱼食性的稀有鲤鱼之一是; 也吃小的水生鸟。 为产卵在中在支流中溯河回游四月-六月。 (参考文献 556,30578)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Sexual maturity is reached after 4-5 years (Ref. 2059). Reproductive success seems to be associated with low water level and high spring temperatures. Spawning occurs more than one season and lasts about 2 weeks. Deposits eggs which adhere to gravel or submerged plants (Ref. 59034).歐洲的水域, 除了丹麥，法國，英國，瑞士與區域南部。 (參考文獻 9696) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 亞種 Aspius aspius iblioides 為鹹海被命名者辨認出來了。 (參考文獻 13403)
Vostradovsky, J., 1973. Freshwater fishes. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, London. 252 p. (Ref. 9696)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00331 - 0.01740), b=3.12 (2.95 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3-4; tmax=11; K=0.10-0.33; Fec = 50,000-1 million).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 68.1 [33.5, 138.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.514 [0.295, 0.939] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.4, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 1.51 [0.61, 3.73] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.7 [6.4, 46.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 64 [17, 253] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.532 [0.349, 0.835] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.