Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ gần đáy; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243). Temperate; 4°C - 25°C (Ref. 1672); 62°N - 42°N, 15°E - 61°E
Europe and Asia: In Europe, north of the Alps, from Meuse eastward to Neva drainages and Lake Ladoga; northern Black Sea basin from Danube eastward to Kuban, absent on the southern section; Caspian basin in Volga and Ural drainages. Not native to Great Britain, Scandinavia, Apennine and Iberian peninsulas, Crimea, and Adriatic, Aegean and White Sea basins. Locally introduced in Rhône drainage (France) and perhaps elsewhere (Ref. 59043).
In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna) (Ref. 1441).
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); 30.7 cm TL (female); common length : 15.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556)
Hình thái học | Sinh trắc học
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 3; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 5-6; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 8 - 11; Động vật có xương sống: 49 - 50. Broad midlateral stripe from eye to caudal base and narrow stripe from opercle at least to pelvic origin. Lamina circularis absent in males (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 14-16 rays (Ref. 40476).
Found in lower reaches of slow-flowing rivers, but can also be found in still pools (Ref. 9696), on sandy bottoms of ponds, pools and ditches. Adults are nocturnal which burrow into mud during dry periods and strong frosts. Usually, burrows are 20-30 cm deep, occasionally down to 70 cm during dry periods (Ref. 59043). During the day, they stay buried in the sand. Feed on insect larvae and small mollusks. Seldom captured with hook and line (Ref. 30578). Are sensitive to pollutants which accumulate in the sediment (Ref. 11941). Facultative air-breathers (Ref. 27368). A female specimen measuring 30.7 cm TL was recorded from Netherlands (Ref. 114650).
Male follows female into dense vegetation and forms a complete ring around her body, behind dorsal fin (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: không ích lợi (thú vị); mồi: usually
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Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00230 - 0.00829), b=3.08 (2.92 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (tm=2; Fec=100,000-150,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .