分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(屬, 種) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri > Cypriniformes
(Carps) > Leuciscidae
(Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Chondrostoma: Greek, chondros = cartilage + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). Name referring to the characteristic horny layer on the lower lip (Ref. 57917). More on author: Berg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水 底中水層性; 深度上下限 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). 溫帶; 0°C -
Europe: Kuban drainage, Russia.
大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043)
型態特徵 | 形態測量圖
The only species of the genus in Kuban drainage which can be diagnosed from other congeners in Black and Caspian Sea basins by the following characters: straight mouth, lower lip with thick cornified sheath; 54-62 scales on lateral line; dorsal fin usually with 8½ branched rays; anal fin usually with 10½ branched rays; eye small, diameter 44-52% of interorbital distance; body laterally compressed, width at dorsal fin origin 45-54% of depth; and body lacking dark lateral stripe (Ref. 59043).
Inhabits piedmont and montane rivers with strong current and gravel bottom. Occurs most of the year in the middle or upper stretches of rivers and moves downstream in winter to lower stretches or larger tributaries. Feeds predominantly on detritus, but also takes periphyton, benthic invertebrates, especially during first year of life. Spawns at sites with gravel or hard sand, with rapids and swift current (up to 1.5 m/s), 0.2-1.0 m deep, in clean water with high oxygen concentrations. Very sensitive to water quality, especially turbidity (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Begins spawning migration in January-February to uppermost montane reaches, entering small shallow streams with very fast current. Spawning occurs at sites with gravel or hard sand, with rapids and swift current (up to 1.5 m/s), 0.2-1.0 m deep, in clean water with high oxygen concentrations. Females deposit 1000-1250 eggs, during a short period, usually in a single night, but often in several portions. At a given spawning site, most individuals breed over 3-4 nights. Eggs are sticky and adhere to substrate (Ref. 59043).前蘇聯: 庫邦河流域。
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00374 - 0.01613), b=3.13 (2.96 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=3; Fec=1,000-1,250).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .