Raja miraletus, Brown ray : fisheries, gamefish

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Raja miraletus Linnaeus, 1758

Brown ray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Raja miraletus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Raja miraletus (Brown ray)
Raja miraletus
Picture by Furlan, B.

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; brackwasser demersal; tiefenbereich 17 - 462 m (Ref. 56504), usually 50 - 150 m (Ref. 27121).   Subtropical; 44°N - 35°S

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: from Spain (Bay of Biscay) to Morocco and Madiera, including the Mediterranean Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?, range 44 - ? cm
Max length : 63.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 39256); 59.7 cm TL (female); common length : 35.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 2683)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 0; Afterflossenstacheln 0; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 0. Snout short and bluntly pointed; disc angular (Ref. 5578). Upper surface prickly only in young, nearly smooth in adults, underside smooth (Ref. 3167). Upper surface ochre to reddish-brown with scattered dark spots, underside white (Ref. 3167); two bright blue eyespots centered on the pectoral bases (Ref. 5578); may have a small dark spot on tip of snout (Ref. 2708).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Found over soft bottoms of the shelf and the uppermost slope (Ref. 5578). Depth range from 17-300 m, and up to depth of 462 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on all kinds of benthic animals, also on fish offal (Ref. 5578). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.2-4.6 cm long and 2.7-2.9 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 40-72 eggs are lain by an individual in a year (Ref. 41250). Caught by ski-boat anglers (Ref. 5578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). With egg-cases laid from spring to summer (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : McEachran, John | Partner

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 123251)

  nicht bedroht (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 January 2019

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja
FAO - Fischereien: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet Quellen

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | FishWatcher Einträge suchen | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Gattung, Arten | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Fischereien: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: Genom, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Nationale Datenbanken | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Gehe zu, Suchen | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 13.1 - 25.6, mean 17.6 °C (based on 383 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00214 (0.00178 - 0.00257), b=3.22 (3.18 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert 4,5 - 14 Jahre. (Fec assumed to be <100).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 50.7 [7.3, 294.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.3 [0.2, 4.8] mg/100g ; Protein = 16 [13, 18] % ; Omega3 = 1.16 [0.45, 3.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.9 [4.1, 97.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.4 [2.5, 54.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.838 [0.216, 3.270] mg/100g (wet weight);