Raja microocellata, Small-eyed ray : fisheries, gamefish

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Raja microocellata Montagu, 1818

Small-eyed ray
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Raja microocellata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Raja microocellata (Small-eyed ray)
Raja microocellata
Picture by Meyer, T.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 深度上下限 ? - 100 m (Ref. 4426).   溫帶; 55°N - 24°N, 16°W - 1°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southwestern England and Ireland to Rio de Oro in Western Sahara; absent from the North Sea and the Mediterranean.
東大西洋: 英格蘭西南部與愛爾蘭到西撒哈拉的里奧德奧羅; 北海與地中海沒有出現。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 74.0, range 73 - ? cm
Max length : 87.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 6014); 最大体重: 4.5 kg (Ref. 4699)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. Eyes conspicuously small; dorsal fins close-set, no thorns between; upper surface predominantly spinulose, underside almost smooth in young, but head and centre of disc prickly in larger specimens; orbital thorns separate, a regular row of about 50 thorns from nape to first dorsal fin; upper surface greyish, olive to light brown with light blotches and long bands, underside white (Ref. 3167).
眼显着小; 背鳍靠拢在一起, 中间没有刺; 上表皮有明显的小刺, 下面几乎平滑当幼鱼时, 但是头部与体盘的中心多刺的在较大的标本中; 眼窝的刺分开, 固定的一列大约 50个从后颈到第一背鳍的刺; 上表皮略灰色的, 橄榄色到淡褐色有淡色的斑块与长的条纹, 腹面白色的.(参考文献 3167)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found on sandy bottoms, from inshore waters to about 100 m in tidal areas (Ref. 3167). Feed on fishes (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 6.6-10.0 cm long and 4.1-6.3 cm wide (Ref. 41250). About 54-61 eggs are laid by an individual in a year (Ref. 41250).

栖息于砂质底部了, 从近岸水域在潮汐的区域中到大约 100 公尺。 (参考文献 3167) 捕食鱼。 (参考文献 3167) 卵生的。 明显的成对出现。 幼鱼可能倾向跟随大的个体, 例如他们的母亲.(参考文献 205) 卵为长方形鞘囊具有僵硬的触角沈积在沙滩或泥滩的角落.(参考文献 205) 卵鞘是 6.6-10.0 公分长与 4.1-6.3 公分宽的.(参考文献 41250) 大约 54-61个卵在一年中被一个个体生产。 (参考文献 41250)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Oviparous (Ref. 3167). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).東大西洋: 英格蘭西南部與愛爾蘭到西撒哈拉的里奧德奧羅; 北海與地中海沒有出現。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  临近濒危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 13 February 2006

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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特别资料

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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 10.4 - 15.4, mean 12 °C (based on 138 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00313 - 0.00765), b=3.29 (3.17 - 3.41), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Fec= 54-61).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 15.1 [1.9, 87.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.242 [0.044, 0.932] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [14.1, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.931 [0.404, 2.266] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.9 [3.6, 58.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.98 [1.87, 33.24] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.392 [0.103, 1.432] mg/100g (wet weight);