Elasmobranchii (hajar och rockor) (sharks and rays)
(Ground sharks) > Pseudotriakidae
Etymology: Gollum: Taken from a personnage of the J.R.R.Tolkien works "The Lord of the rings".
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marina djupbottenlevande; djupintervall 120 - 660 m (Ref. 26346), usually 400 - 600 m (Ref. 13566). Deep-water; - 46°S
Southwest Pacific: occurs off New Zealand and on rises between New Zealand and the east coast of Australia, New Caledonia, and Fiji just south of the Western Central Pacific. Placement in Proscyllidae provisional, probably will be relocated in Pseudotriakidae.
Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 70 - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 6893); 109.2 cm TL (female)
Morfologi | Morfometri
Taggstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 0; Mjukstrålar i ryggfenan (totalt): 0; Taggstrålar i analfenan 0; Mjukstrålar i analfenan: 0. Caudal fin without a rippled dorsal margin and ventral lobe but with a strong subterminal notch; vertebral axis of caudal fin little raised above body axis (Ref. 13566).
An uncommon to common deep-water bottom-dwelling shark found on the outermost continental shelf and upper slope of New Zealand and on adjacent seamounts and submarine banks (Ref. 13566). Seems adapted to waters of about 10°C and 34.8 ppt salinity (Ref. 6893). Feeds on a wide variety of fishes, cephalopods, and other invertebrates (Ref. 13566). Probably in schools (Ref. 13566). Females grow slightly larger than males (Ref. 13566). Ovoviviparous, embryos feeding on yolk sac and other ova produced by the mother, uterine milk is consumed additionally (Ref. 50449). Two young are born per litter (Ref. 13566).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), embryos feed on yolk and ova, also consume uterine milk (Ref. 50449). With usually 2 young per litter (Ref. 13566). Fetuses eat unfertilized eggs and store consumed yolk in their yolk sacs (Ref. 13566). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fiskeri: saknar intresse
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.9 - 10.1, mean 9.5 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00138 - 0.00954), b=3.12 (2.90 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179
): Mycket låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid mer än 14 år (Fec=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .