Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 5 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Western Pacific: South China Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 6 - 7;
soft rays: 10. Characterized by greyish body color with dark brown bar below eye; gill cover with vertically elongate brown patch, dark brown spot just above; four large, rectangular blackish spots along middle of side to base of caudal fin; irregular brown spotting on back; spot near margin of first dorsal fin, large pale-edged black spot; united pelvic fins, frenum present; longitudinal scale series 77-97; posterior body with ctenoid scales, becoming cycloid anteriorly; head without scales; greatest depth of body5.1-6.1 in SL; lanceolate caudal fin, a little longer that head length; presence of oculoscapular sensory canal and pores (Ref. 90102).
Inhabits silty near shore reefs, often stream mouths in 1-5 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E. and K.K.P. Lim (eds.), 2000. A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. (8):569-667. (Ref. 36648)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.2 - 29.2, mean 28.8 °C (based on 916 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00261 - 0.01268), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .