Squaliolus laticaudus, Spined pygmy shark

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Squaliolus laticaudus Smith & Radcliffe, 1912

Spined pygmy shark
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Squaliolus laticaudus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Squaliolus laticaudus (Spined pygmy shark)
Squaliolus laticaudus
Picture by Fischer, L.G.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes (Sleeper and dogfish sharks) 角鯊目 (Sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Dalatiidae (Sleeper sharks) 鎧鯊科 (Sleeper sharks)
Etymology: Squaliolus: Latin, squalidus = pale, weak (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Smith & Radcliffe.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 深海區的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 200 - 1200 m (Ref. 27000), usually - m (Ref. ).   深水域; 0°C - ; 48°N - 40°S, 180°W - 180°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Nearly circumtropical. Western Atlantic: off Bermuda, southern Brazil, and northern Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: off France and Madeira. Western Indian Ocean: off Somalia. Western Pacific: Japan, Taiwan and Philippines (Ref. 13748), as well as Australia (Ref. 7300).
幾乎 circumtropical。 西大西洋: 外海的百慕達群島,巴西南部與阿根廷北部。 東大西洋: 外海的法國與馬得拉群島。 西印度洋: 外海的索馬利亞。 西太平洋: 日本,台灣與菲律賓 (參考文獻 13748), 以及澳洲.(參考文獻 7300)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - 20 cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 247); 25.0 cm TL (female)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 1; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. The spined pygmy shark Squaliolus laticaudus is a very small dogfish (about 25cm) with a large eye (diameter 73-86% of interorbital width), upper margin nearly straight; upper lip without papillae (Ref. 31367, 6871). Color: dark with conspicuously light-margined fins (Ref. 247) . Edge of fins with bright border (Ref. 43998). S. laticaudus is the type species of the genus which has the following distinctive features: fin spine on its first dorsal fin but not on its second dorsal fin; second dorsal fin long-based and low, about twice the length of first dorsal fin base; first dorsal-fin base closer to pectoral fins than to pelvic fins; and caudal fin nearly symmetrical, paddle-shaped, with subterminal notch present; low lateral keels on caudal peduncle . Body cigar-shaped; snout very long, bulbously conical but slightly pointed; mouth ventral; lips thin; teeth strongly different in both jaws, uppers small, narrow and erect cusps, lowers larger, blade-like and semi erect. Tooth rows 22-23/16-21. (Ref. 247, 6871).
有背骨的矮鯊 Squaliolus laticaudus 是具有一個大的眼 (直徑 73-86% 的眼間骨寬度) ,上緣的一隻非常小的狗鯊 (大約 25 公分) 幾乎是直的; 沒有乳突的上嘴唇.(參考文獻 31367,6871) 顏色: 深色且有顯著邊緣發亮的鰭。 (參考文獻 247) 鰭的邊緣有明亮的邊緣。 (參考文獻 43998) S. laticaudus 是有下列的特殊特徵的本屬的模式種: 鰭棘在它的第一背鰭但是不在它的第二背鰭鰭上; 第二背鰭鰭基底長而低的, 大約長度兩倍於第一背鰭鰭基底; 第一背鰭鰭基底更靠近胸鰭超過對腹鰭; 而且尾鰭幾乎對稱﹐槳狀的, 與接近端位的凹槽呈現; 低的側龍骨在尾梗上。 身體雪茄-形狀的; 吻非常長的, 凸起錐形但是微尖的; 嘴腹面; 唇細的; 齒雙顎明顯不同, 上面的小﹐狹窄的與直立的尖頭, 低的比較大的, 刀劍狀的與半豎立。 齒列 22-23/16-21. (參考文獻 247,6871).

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

An oceanic, wide-ranging, tropical pelagic species occurring near continental and insular land masses, sometimes over the shelves, but usually over the slopes (Ref. 247). Displays vertical migrations on a diel cycle, seen at the bottom during the day and travels to 200 m at night (Ref. 247). Feeds on deepwater squid, lanternfish, gonostomatids and idiacanthids, and probably follows its prey on their diel migrations (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Has well-developed photophores densely covering the ventral part of the body and sparsely seen on the sides and hardly developed on the dorsal surface (Ref. 247).

棲息於靠近大陸與海島的大陸區塊的一個大洋性的﹐廣泛分佈﹐和熱帶的大洋性魚種, 有時在架之上, 但是通常在斜坡上面.(參考文獻 247) 在底部被見到在白天期間而且對 200 公尺移動在晚上的一個日週期性的周期上的顯現垂直性迴游.(參考文獻 247) 吃深水的烏賊,燈籠魚, 鑽光魚與 idiacanthids, 而且可能在他們的日週期性迴游上跟隨它的獵物。 (參考文獻 247) 卵胎生的.(參考文獻 205) 有側邊上濃密地包含的身體的腹部份而且稀疏地見到的發展良好的發光器而且剛剛在背部表面上發展.(參考文獻 247)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Probably ovoviviparous. Twelve mature eggs have been found in a single ovary of a mature female but this does not imply that large litters are produced (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).幾乎 circumtropical。 西大西洋: 外海的百慕達群島,巴西南部與阿根廷北部。 東大西洋: 外海的法國與馬得拉群島。 西印度洋: 外海的索馬利亞。 西太平洋: 日本,台灣與菲律賓 (參考文獻 13748), 以及澳洲.(參考文獻 7300)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 124695)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 November 2019

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.1 - 14.6, mean 10 °C (based on 649 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7520   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00141 - 0.00976), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.73 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (Fec assumed to be <10).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 16.5 [2.8, 62.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.36 [0.09, 1.01] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.5, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.45 [0.16, 1.36] g/100g ; Selenium = 6.34 [1.55, 21.17] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 96.9 [20.1, 471.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.497 [0.230, 1.302] mg/100g (wet weight);