Squatina squatina, Angelshark : fisheries, gamefish

Squatina squatina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Angelshark
إضافة ملاحظاتك Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Squatina squatina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
ارفع صور و مقاطع فيديو
Pictures | صور قوقل
Image of Squatina squatina (Angelshark)
Squatina squatina
Picture by Hernández-González, C.L.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, الانواع) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

أشلاق (القروش و الشفانين) (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; بحري; مياه مخلوطة القاع; محيطية (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 5 - 150 m (Ref. 247), usually - m (Ref. ).   Temperate; 0°C - ; 63°N - 21°N, 19°W - 42°E

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: southern Norway, Sweden and Shetland Islands to Morocco and West Sahara, including the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 247). Range and abundance declining 1severely throughout its range; proposed legal protection in Britain (Ref.58085). Appendix III (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Annex V of the OSPAR Convention (2010). The European Council Regulations 43/2009, 23/2010, 57/2011, 44/2012, 40/2013, 43/2014, 2015/104 and 2016/72 prohibit to fish for, to retain on board, to tranship and to land the S. squatina in all waters from the European Community (F. Osaer, pers.comm. 04/2016).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm ?, range 102 - 169 cm
Max length : 183 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 247); 244.0 cm TL (female); common length : 150 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. ); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 80.0 kg (Ref. 35388)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 0. Broad flattened body, with enlarged pectoral and pelvic fins, no anal fin. Eyes and large spiracles dorsally. Gill openings at the sides of the head. The mouth is terminal. Coloration variable, from grey to reddish or greenish-brown with scattered small white spots and blackish dots dorsally (Ref. 78469). No ocelli on body (Ref. 247).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

A benthic species that occurs inshore, on coasts and along the continental shelf; may enter estuaries (Ref. 247, 58085). Found mainly on sand or mud bottoms; sluggish by day, lying buried with eyes protruding. Also utilizes areas with macroalgae, kelp or rocks (Ref. 88920). Nocturnal species, swims off bottom at night. Feeds mainly on flatfishes and other benthic fishes, but also on skates, crustaceans and molluscs, with one record of swallowed cormorant (Ref. 247, 28070). Moves to deeper waters during winter, returning to the shallower depths in the spring (Ref. 88187), moving northwards in summer. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449, 107715). Females generally grow larger than males (Ref. 58137, 107710, 107713, 107715). Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms (e.g. potential prey) (Ref. 10311). The marine leech Stibarobdella macrothela is a common parasite (Ref. 107712) and the isopod Aegapheles deshaysiana a common micropredator (Ref. 107714) for this shark species in the Canary Islands. Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, and possibly for oil and fishmeal (Ref. 247). Reaches 250 cm (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Ovoviviparous, produce 7-25 pups/litter (Ref. 58085), 13.0 +/- 1.9 pups in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713) with litter number increasing with female size. Gestation period lasts for 8-10 months (born Dec-Feb in Mediterranean, July in England) (Ref. 58085), and +/- 6 months in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713). Size at birth ranges from 24-30 cm TL (Ref. 58085). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Full term embryos weighed 189-200 g; no egg capsules found around ova or embryos (Ref. 107715). A biannual reproductive cycle is likely the case for this species (Ref. 32746), triannual cycle in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | المتعاونين

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  معرضه للخطر بشكل حرج (CR) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 12 July 2017

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Traumatogenic





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: غير مهمة تجارياً; لعبة سمكه: نعم

مزيد من المعلومات

الأسماء الشائعة
مرادفات
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مفتريسات
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الخصوبة
بيض
تطور البيضة
العمر/ الحجم
نمو
الطول-الوزن
الطول-الطول
الطول- الترددات
قياسات المظهر الخارجي
الوصف الخارجي
Larvae
حركة انتقال اليرقات
توظيف
الوفرة
BRUVS
مراجع
الأستزراع المائي
ملف الأستزراع المائي
سلالات
جيني
تواتر الأليل
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Nutrients
Mass conversion
المتعاونين
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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.7 - 19.4, mean 11.4 °C (based on 854 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00366 - 0.02072), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
المرونه (Ref. 120179):  منخفض, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 4.5-14 سنة (Fec=9-20).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.47, Based on 1 stock assessment.
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.8 [1.3, 54.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.274 [0.047, 1.047] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.0, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 1.04 [0.36, 2.94] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.7 [3.0, 70.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.4 [2.8, 82.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.368 [0.092, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);