Squatina squatina, Angelshark : fisheries, gamefish

Squatina squatina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Angelshark
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Squatina squatina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Squatina squatina (Angelshark)
Squatina squatina
Picture by Hernández-González, C.L.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes(Marga, Jenis) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; payau dasar (demersal); oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 5 - 150 m (Ref. 247), usually - m (Ref. ).   Temperate; 0°C - ; 63°N - 21°N, 19°W - 42°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: southern Norway, Sweden and Shetland Islands to Morocco and West Sahara, including the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 247). Range and abundance declining 1severely throughout its range; proposed legal protection in Britain (Ref.58085). Appendix III (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Annex V of the OSPAR Convention (2010). The European Council Regulations 43/2009, 23/2010, 57/2011, 44/2012, 40/2013, 43/2014, 2015/104 and 2016/72 prohibit to fish for, to retain on board, to tranship and to land the S. squatina in all waters from the European Community (F. Osaer, pers.comm. 04/2016).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?, range 102 - 169 cm
Max length : 183 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 247); 244.0 cm TL (female); common length : 150 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. ); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 80.0 kg (Ref. 35388)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 0. Broad flattened body, with enlarged pectoral and pelvic fins, no anal fin. Eyes and large spiracles dorsally. Gill openings at the sides of the head. The mouth is terminal. Coloration variable, from grey to reddish or greenish-brown with scattered small white spots and blackish dots dorsally (Ref. 78469). No ocelli on body (Ref. 247).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

A benthic species that occurs inshore, on coasts and along the continental shelf; may enter estuaries (Ref. 247, 58085). Found mainly on sand or mud bottoms; sluggish by day, lying buried with eyes protruding. Also utilizes areas with macroalgae, kelp or rocks (Ref. 88920). Nocturnal species, swims off bottom at night. Feeds mainly on flatfishes and other benthic fishes, but also on skates, crustaceans and molluscs, with one record of swallowed cormorant (Ref. 247, 28070). Moves to deeper waters during winter, returning to the shallower depths in the spring (Ref. 88187), moving northwards in summer. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449, 107715). Females generally grow larger than males (Ref. 58137, 107710, 107713, 107715). Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms (e.g. potential prey) (Ref. 10311). The marine leech Stibarobdella macrothela is a common parasite (Ref. 107712) and the isopod Aegapheles deshaysiana a common micropredator (Ref. 107714) for this shark species in the Canary Islands. Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, and possibly for oil and fishmeal (Ref. 247). Reaches 250 cm (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Ovoviviparous, produce 7-25 pups/litter (Ref. 58085), 13.0 +/- 1.9 pups in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713) with litter number increasing with female size. Gestation period lasts for 8-10 months (born Dec-Feb in Mediterranean, July in England) (Ref. 58085), and +/- 6 months in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713). Size at birth ranges from 24-30 cm TL (Ref. 58085). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Full term embryos weighed 189-200 g; no egg capsules found around ova or embryos (Ref. 107715). A biannual reproductive cycle is likely the case for this species (Ref. 32746), triannual cycle in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | mitra

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 124695)

  sangat terancam (CR) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 12 July 2017

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Traumatogenic





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Ikan buruan: ya
FAO - Perikanan: landings, profail spesis; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
BRUVS
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Nutrients
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Marga, Jenis | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Perikanan: landings, profail spesis; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genom, Nukleotida | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Akuarium publik | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: pergi, Cari | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.7 - 19.4, mean 11.4 °C (based on 854 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00366 - 0.02072), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (Fec=9-20).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.47, Based on 1 stock assessment.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.8 [1.3, 54.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.274 [0.047, 1.047] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.0, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 1.04 [0.36, 2.94] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.7 [3.0, 70.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.4 [2.8, 82.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.368 [0.092, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);