Squatina squatina, Angelshark : fisheries, gamefish

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Squatina squatina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Angelshark
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Squatina squatina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Squatina squatina
Picture by Hernández-González, C.L.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes (Angel sharks) 扁鯊目 (Angel sharks) > Squatinidae (Angel sharks) 琵琶鮫科 (Angel sharks)
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 150 m (Ref. 247), usually - m (Ref. ).   溫帶; 0°C - ; 63°N - 21°N, 19°W - 42°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: southern Norway, Sweden and Shetland Islands to Morocco and West Sahara, including the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 247). Range and abundance declining 1severely throughout its range; proposed legal protection in Britain (Ref.58085). Appendix III (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Annex V of the OSPAR Convention (2010). The European Council Regulations 43/2009, 23/2010, 57/2011, 44/2012, 40/2013, 43/2014, 2015/104 and 2016/72 prohibit to fish for, to retain on board, to tranship and to land the S. squatina in all waters from the European Community (F. Osaer, pers.comm. 04/2016).
東北大西洋: 挪威南部,瑞典與雪特蘭群島到摩洛哥與撒哈拉西方部, 包括加納利群島與地中海。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 102 - 169 cm
Max length : 183 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 247); 244.0 cm TL (female); common length : 150 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. ); 最大體重: 80.0 kg (Ref. 35388)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0. Broad flattened body, with enlarged pectoral and pelvic fins, no anal fin. Eyes and large spiracles dorsally. Gill openings at the sides of the head. The mouth is terminal. Coloration variable, from grey to reddish or greenish-brown with scattered small white spots and blackish dots dorsally (Ref. 78469). No ocelli on body (Ref. 247).
沒有在身體上的假眼斑.(參考文獻 247)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

A benthic species that occurs inshore, on coasts and along the continental shelf; may enter estuaries (Ref. 247, 58085). Found mainly on sand or mud bottoms; sluggish by day, lying buried with eyes protruding. Also utilizes areas with macroalgae, kelp or rocks (Ref. 88920). Nocturnal species, swims off bottom at night. Feeds mainly on flatfishes and other benthic fishes, but also on skates, crustaceans and molluscs, with one record of swallowed cormorant (Ref. 247, 28070). Moves to deeper waters during winter, returning to the shallower depths in the spring (Ref. 88187), moving northwards in summer. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449, 107715). Females generally grow larger than males (Ref. 58137, 107710, 107713, 107715). Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms (e.g. potential prey) (Ref. 10311). The marine leech Stibarobdella macrothela is a common parasite (Ref. 107712) and the isopod Aegapheles deshaysiana a common micropredator (Ref. 107714) for this shark species in the Canary Islands. Utilized fresh and dried salted for human consumption, and possibly for oil and fishmeal (Ref. 247). Reaches 250 cm (Ref. 35388).

棲息於大陸棚從岸邊到至少 150 公尺深了。 (參考文獻 247) 範圍 250 公分.(參考文獻 35388) 它躺臥, 只有被埋藏在沙中的它的眼凸出或泥.(參考文獻 247) 夜行的 (參考文獻 247) 而且可能被發現游動在自底部上面.(參考文獻 247) 主要吃硬骨魚類,也捕食魟魚,甲殼動物與軟體動物。 (參考文獻 247) 卵胎生的 (參考文獻 50449),9 到 20 幼魚在一胎.(參考文獻 247) 在它的分佈範圍的北部中,這種季節性迴游, 而且在夏天期間發動向北的侵入。 (參考文獻 247) 生鮮使用與乾燥鹽醃供人類消費, 與可能地用做魚油與魚粉.(參考文獻 247)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Ovoviviparous, produce 7-25 pups/litter (Ref. 58085), 13.0 +/- 1.9 pups in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713) with litter number increasing with female size. Gestation period lasts for 8-10 months (born Dec-Feb in Mediterranean, July in England) (Ref. 58085), and +/- 6 months in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713). Size at birth ranges from 24-30 cm TL (Ref. 58085). Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Full term embryos weighed 189-200 g; no egg capsules found around ova or embryos (Ref. 107715). A biannual reproductive cycle is likely the case for this species (Ref. 32746), triannual cycle in the Canary Is (Ref. 107713).東北大西洋: 挪威南部,瑞典與雪特蘭群島到摩洛哥與撒哈拉西方部, 包括加納利群島與地中海。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 124695)

  極危 (CR) (A2bcd); Date assessed: 12 July 2017

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
年龄/大小
成長
長度-重量
長度-長度
長度-頻率
形態測量圖
型態特徵
仔魚
稚魚動力學
入添量
豐度
BRUVS
參考文獻
養殖
養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
遺傳率
疾病
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Nutrients
Mass conversion
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
聲音
神經毒
速度
泳型
鰓區
Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

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網路資源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公眾的水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.7 - 19.4, mean 11.4 °C (based on 854 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00366 - 0.02072), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (Fec=9-20).
Prior r = 0.27, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.47, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.8 [1.3, 54.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.274 [0.047, 1.047] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.0, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 1.04 [0.36, 2.94] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.7 [3.0, 70.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 14.4 [2.8, 82.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.368 [0.092, 1.376] mg/100g (wet weight);