Elasmobranchii (hajar och rockor) (sharks and rays)
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marina bottenlevande; djupintervall 50 - 200 m (Ref. 6808), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 53°N - 9°N, 19°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: southern Ireland and England to Senegal, including the western Mediterranean and the Canary Islands. Reported from the eastern Mediterranean (Ref. 3261).
Length at first maturity / Size / Vikt / Age
Maturity: Lm 80.0  range ? - 85.2 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL hane/ej könsbestämd; (Ref. 4426)
Found on sandy bottoms of shelf waters (Ref. 3167). Feed on all kinds of bottom animals (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 7.2-9.0 cm long and 4.2-5.2 cm wide (Ref. 41303 , 41251, 41304).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Könsmognad | Reproduktion | Lek | Ägg | Fecundity | Larver
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Egg-cases laid from March to September (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.8 - 17.1, mean 13.2 °C (based on 157 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00200 - 0.00477), b=3.18 (3.06 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trofisk nivå (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resiliens (Ref. 120179
): Låg, lägsta populationsfördubblingstid 4,5-14 år (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.3 [3.3, 166.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.882 [0.170, 3.393] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [14.3, 19.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.522 [0.237, 1.193] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.7 [7.0, 100.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.02 [1.65, 30.87] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.579 [0.150, 2.095] mg/100g (wet weight);