Pastinachus sephen, Cowtail stingray : fisheries, aquarium

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Pastinachus sephen (Forsskål, 1775)

Cowtail stingray
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Pastinachus sephen   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pastinachus sephen (Cowtail stingray)
Pastinachus sephen
Picture by Banks, I.

Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes(ຕະກຸນ, ຊະນິດ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກອ່ອນ (ເຊັ່ນ: ປາສະຫລາມ, ປາຜາໄລ) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays) > Hypolophinae
Etymology: Pastinachus: Latin, pastinaca = a sting ray (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Issue
This species which is similar to Pastinachus ater, an Indo-West Pacific species, is found only in Northwestern Indian Ocean. Erroneous information will be deleted.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ; ນ້ຳຈືດ; ນ້ຳກ່ອຍ ກ່ຽວກັນຫີນ; ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລໄປຫານ້ຳຈືດ ແລະນ້ຳຈືດຫາທະເລ (Ref. 51243); ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ - 60 m (Ref. 6871), usually - m (Ref. ).   Tropical; 0°C -

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Northern Indian Ocean: Red Sea to Pakistan.

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 96 - 100 cm
Max length : 183 cm WD ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 37816); common length : 65.0 cm WD ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 27550)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

ຄີ (ໜາມ)ແຂງຢູ່ຫຼັງປາ (ທັງໝົດ): 0; ຄີຫຼັງຂອງປາ (ຄີອ່ອນ) (ທັງໝົດ): 0. A large, plain, dark stingray with an angular snout and pectoral disc; tail long and broad-based, less than twice body length, and with no upper caudal finfold but with high lower caudal finfold- 2 to 3 times depth of tail but not reaching tail tip; no large thorns; 1 or 2 long stings on tail, further behind tail base than in most stingrays; unique hexagonal, high-crowned teeth (Ref. 5578). Dark brown or black dorsally without conspicuous markings, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Tail black (Ref. 3263).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

Found in lagoons, reef flats, and reef faces (Ref. 12951). Also in rivers far from the sea (Ref. 5578). Feeds on bony fishes, worms, shrimp, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adults are sometimes accompanied by remoras or members of the trevally family (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm WD or larger (Ref. 6871). Flesh utilized as food and skin used for polishing wood (Ref. 4832). Possibly caught by sports anglers (Ref. 5578). Recently there is a targeted fishery on this species for its skin, which is used as 'shagreen' in fashion accessories, from wallets to fancy pens; as a result, the species is in danger of disappearance (IHT 26.11.2005, p.5). Maximum length about 300 cm TL (Ref. 30573).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Size at birth ~ 18 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ : McEachran, John | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)

  Near Threatened (NT) (A2d+3d); Date assessed: 07 February 2017

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous





Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ທີ່ເປັນການຄ້າໜ້ອຍ; ຕູ້ປາ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1694 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.60 se; based on food items.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 120179):  ຕຳ່ຫຼາຍ, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າຫຼາຍກວ່າ 14 ປີ (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Low.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 14.2 [1.8, 76.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.495 [0.085, 1.976] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.6 [17.8, 23.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.172 [0.052, 0.527] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.8 [7.0, 145.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35.4 [6.5, 183.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.883 [0.225, 3.463] mg/100g (wet weight);