Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays)
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
(Stingrays) > Hypolophinae
Etymology: Pastinachus: Latin, pastinaca = a sting ray (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
This species which is similar to Pastinachus ater, an Indo-West Pacific species, is found only in Northwestern Indian Ocean. Erroneous information will be deleted.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas; Água doce; estuarina associadas(os) a recifes; anfídromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade - 60 m (Ref. 6871), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Northern Indian Ocean: Red Sea to Pakistan.
Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?, range 96 - 100 cm
Max length : 183 cm WD macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 37816); common length : 65.0 cm WD macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 27550)
Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais moles (total): 0. A large, plain, dark stingray with an angular snout and pectoral disc; tail long and broad-based, less than twice body length, and with no upper caudal finfold but with high lower caudal finfold- 2 to 3 times depth of tail but not reaching tail tip; no large thorns; 1 or 2 long stings on tail, further behind tail base than in most stingrays; unique hexagonal, high-crowned teeth (Ref. 5578). Dark brown or black dorsally without conspicuous markings, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Tail black (Ref. 3263).
Found in lagoons, reef flats, and reef faces (Ref. 12951). Also in rivers far from the sea (Ref. 5578). Feeds on bony fishes, worms, shrimp, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adults are sometimes accompanied by remoras or members of the trevally family (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm WD or larger (Ref. 6871). Flesh utilized as food and skin used for polishing wood (Ref. 4832). Possibly caught by sports anglers (Ref. 5578). Recently there is a targeted fishery on this species for its skin, which is used as 'shagreen' in fashion accessories, from wallets to fancy pens; as a result, the species is in danger of disappearance (IHT 26.11.2005, p.5). Maximum length about 300 cm TL (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Size at birth ~ 18 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 124695)
Ameaça para o homem
Pescarias: pouco comercial; Aquário: Espécies comerciais
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequência dos alelosHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoNutrientsMass conversion
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1694 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Muito baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população maior que 14 anos (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.2 [1.8, 76.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.495 [0.085, 1.976] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.6 [17.8, 23.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.172 [0.052, 0.527] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.8 [7.0, 145.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35.4 [6.5, 183.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.883 [0.225, 3.463] mg/100g (wet weight);