Lớp phụ Cá sụn (cá mập và cá đuối) (sharks and rays)
(Stingrays) > Dasyatidae
(Stingrays) > Hypolophinae
Etymology: Pastinachus: Latin, pastinaca = a sting ray (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forsskål.
This species which is similar to Pastinachus ater, an Indo-West Pacific species, is found only in Northwestern Indian Ocean. Erroneous information will be deleted.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Cùng sống ở rạn san hô; sống cả ở nước ngọt và nuớc mặn (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu - 60 m (Ref. 6871), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Northern Indian Ocean: Red Sea to Pakistan.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 96 - 100 cm
Max length : 183 cm WD con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 37816); common length : 65.0 cm WD con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 27550)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 0; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 0. A large, plain, dark stingray with an angular snout and pectoral disc; tail long and broad-based, less than twice body length, and with no upper caudal finfold but with high lower caudal finfold- 2 to 3 times depth of tail but not reaching tail tip; no large thorns; 1 or 2 long stings on tail, further behind tail base than in most stingrays; unique hexagonal, high-crowned teeth (Ref. 5578). Dark brown or black dorsally without conspicuous markings, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). Tail black (Ref. 3263).
Found in lagoons, reef flats, and reef faces (Ref. 12951). Also in rivers far from the sea (Ref. 5578). Feeds on bony fishes, worms, shrimp, and crabs (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Adults are sometimes accompanied by remoras or members of the trevally family (Ref. 6871). Size at birth about 18 cm WD or larger (Ref. 6871). Flesh utilized as food and skin used for polishing wood (Ref. 4832). Possibly caught by sports anglers (Ref. 5578). Recently there is a targeted fishery on this species for its skin, which is used as 'shagreen' in fashion accessories, from wallets to fancy pens; as a result, the species is in danger of disappearance (IHT 26.11.2005, p.5). Maximum length about 300 cm TL (Ref. 30573).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Chín muồi sinh dục | Sự tái sinh sản | Đẻ trứng | Các trứng | Sự sinh sản | Ấu trùng
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Size at birth ~ 18 cm WD (Ref.58048).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: buôn bán nhỏ; Bể nuôi cá: Tính thương mại
Thêm thông tin
Các tài liệu tham khảoNuôi trồng thủy sảnTổng quan nuôi trồng thủy sảnCác giốngDi truyềnTần số alenDi sảnCác bệnhChế biếnNutrientsMass conversion
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Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1694 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): Rất thấp, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là hơn 14 năm (Assuming Fec<10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.2 [1.8, 76.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.495 [0.085, 1.976] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.6 [17.8, 23.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.172 [0.052, 0.527] g/100g ; Selenium = 33.8 [7.0, 145.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35.4 [6.5, 183.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.883 [0.225, 3.463] mg/100g (wet weight);