Lamna nasus, Porbeagle : fisheries, gamefish

Lamna nasus (Bonnaterre, 1788)

Porbeagle
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Lamna nasus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) 鼠鯊目 (Mackerel sharks) > Lamnidae (Mackerel sharks or white shark) 鼠鯊科 (Mackerel sharks or white shark)
Etymology: Lamna: Greek, lamna, -es = a shark (Ref. 45335);  nasus: Latin: nasus, nose (Ref.89261).  More on author: Bonnaterre.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1360 m (Ref. 114967), usually 0 - 300 m (Ref. 119696).   溫帶; -1°C - 23°C (Ref. 98315); 76°N - 59°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 247)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Circumglobal, amphitemperature with centers of distribution in the North Atlantic and temperate water of the southern hemisphere; not in equatorial seas. Appendix III (Mediterranean) of the Bern Convention (2002). Appendix II of the Bonn Convention (2009).
Circumglobal: 在亞熱帶的對溫帶的水域。 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭到紐澤西州美國; 可能地巴西南部到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島與 Barents海西部到南非, 包括地中海。 西南太平洋: 澳洲與紐西蘭。 東南太平洋: 智利。 南極海: 外海的南喬治亞州與凱爾蓋朗群島。 印度洋.(參考文獻 6871)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 175.0, range 170 - 219 cm
Max length : 350 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4645); common length : 244 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5951); 最大體重: 230.0 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 65 年 (Ref. 119696)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. A stout, spindle-shaped shark with large black eyes, a sharp, conical snout, long gill slits, and small, smooth-edged, narrow teeth with side cusps (Ref. 5578, 88171). Strong keels on the caudal peduncle, short secondary keels on the caudal base, and a crescentic caudal fin; the insertion of the small second dorsal fin is above the insertion of the anal fin (Ref. 88171). Dark grey dorsally, white ventrally, without blotches (Ref. 6581, 43278); rear tip of 1st dorsal abruptly white (Ref. 5578).
矮胖, 紡錘形的鯊魚有大的黑色眼,一個銳利又錐形吻, 與小的﹐邊緣平滑的﹐和狹窄的牙齒有旁的尖頭.(參考文獻 5578) 背面暗灰色的﹐腹面白色的, 沒有斑塊;(參考文獻 6581) 第一背鰭的後頂端醒目的白色.(參考文獻 5578)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs inshore to offshore fishing banks and occasionally to open ocean areas. It is migratory, moves generally along the continental shelves (inshore to surface during simmer) and winters offshore in deeper water (Ref. 58085). Most abundant on continental offshore fishing banks but also found far from land in ocean basins and occasionally close inshore (Ref. 247). Extreme depth reported to 1,360 meters. Age attained in North Atlantic at least 26 years and in the Southern Hemisphere probably 65 years (Ref. 119696). Specimens tagged off southern England were recaptured in northern Norway (having travelled 2,370 km), Denmark and Spain (Ref. 88752, 88753). The northwest Atlantic stock migrates from Newfoundland, Canada in the winter to Massachusetts in the summer (Ref. 43278, 88754). Trans-Atlantic migrations have also been recorded. One of the most cold-tolerant sharks; in the northwest Atlantic mostly found from 5-10°C (Ref. 88755); with extremes of -1°C and 23°C (Ref. 119696). Known to temporarily tolerate salinities as low as 10 to follow its prey (Ref. 88740). Found singly and in schools and feeding aggregations (Ref. 247). Feeds on small and medium-sized pelagic schooling species, other sharks, squid (Ref. 5578) and demersal fishes (cod, white hake, red hake, haddock and cusk (Ref. 5951, 43278)). Ovoviviparous species (Ref. 43278, 50449). Females grow larger than males (Ref. 88756). Parasites include Phyllobothrium dagnallium (found in stomach, intestine and spiral valve) and Dinobothrium sp. (Ref. 5951). Regarded as potentially dangerous to people because of its size and activity but has never or very seldom been indicted in an attack on people or boats (Ref. 247). Considered by some as a sport fish (Ref. 84357). The flesh of the porbeagle is of good quality and texture and is said to taste like swordfish (Ref. 84357). Utilized fresh, dried or salted and frozen for human consumption; for oil and fishmeal; fins for shark-fin soup (Ref. 247). May be pan-fried and broiled (Ref. 9988). Catch records and studies in the northeast Atlantic show segregation by sex and size (Ref. 56108, 88756, 88757).

最豐富的在大陸的外海釣魚淺堆上也發現在海洋流域遠離土地與偶然地近岸.(參考文獻 247) 大洋性,表層帶或沿海地區鯊魚; 通常發現於溫度低於 16 °C 。 (參考文獻 5951) 各別地發現與成群與覓食群集.(參考文獻 247) 吃小型大洋性魚類群游性種 (鯡魚, gaspereau 與鯖 (參考文獻 5951)) ,其他的鯊魚,烏賊 (參考文獻 5578) ,鱈魚,白色的鱈魚,紅色鱈魚,黑斑鱈與江鱈。 (參考文獻 5951) 卵胎生的, 胚胎吃產生於母親的卵黃囊與其他的卵.(參考文獻 50449) 寄生蟲包括 Phyllobothrium dagnallium(發現於腹部,腸與螺旋形的瓣膜) 與 Dinobothrium sp. 。 (參考文獻 5951) 1 到 5個幼胎一胎。 (參考文獻 247) 被認為對人類可能有危險性.由於它的大小與活動但是從不或極少在對人或船的攻擊被起訴.(參考文獻 247) 生鮮使用, 乾燥或鹽醃與冷凍供人類消費; 用做魚油與魚粉; 鰭用於魚翅湯.(參考文獻 247) 可能是油鍋炸而火烤的.(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Ovoviviparous (aplacental viviparity), with uterine cannibalism (embryos feeding on other ova produced by the mother (oophagy) after the yolk sac is absorbed) (Ref. 43278, 50449). With 1-5 (usually 4) pups in a litter (Ref. 6871, 43278). Reproduction probably yearly (Ref. 45602). In the northeast Atlantic, breeding grounds are off the coast of Europe and the British Isles. Embryos found in mature females throughout the year except from July to September. Mating occurs in late summer, pups are born in the spring of the following year (Ref. 43278). Gestation may last 8-9 months. Size at birth 60-80 cm TL (Ref. 6871, 43278).Circumglobal: 在亞熱帶的對溫帶的水域。 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭到紐澤西州美國; 可能地巴西南部到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島與 Barents海西部到南非, 包括地中海。 西南太平洋: 澳洲與紐西蘭。 東南太平洋: 智利。 南極海: 外海的南喬治亞州與凱爾蓋朗群島。 印度洋.(參考文獻 6871)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 06 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)


對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 3.1 - 16.3, mean 7.8 °C (based on 1486 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7813   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00607 - 0.01808), b=3.03 (2.87 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.6   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (K=0.12; tm=5; tmax=30; Fec=1-5).
Prior r = 0.05, 95% CL = 0.03 - 0.08, Based on 2 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 4.03 [0.57, 13.07] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.283 [0.072, 0.726] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.9, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.381 [0.167, 0.849] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.8 [4.5, 44.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.3 [2.7, 43.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.211 [0.103, 0.411] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.