Raja asterias, Mediterranean starry ray : fisheries

Raja asterias Delaroche, 1809

Mediterranean starry ray
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Raja asterias   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Raja asterias
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 深度上下限 2 - 343 m (Ref. 56504), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref. 117283).   亞熱帶的; 46°N - 30°N, 10°W - 36°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: endemic to the Mediterranean but may spread to the Strait of Gibraltar, northern Morocco and possibly south to Mauritania.
東大西洋: 地中海的特有種但是可能擴延的到直布羅陀海峽, 摩洛哥北部而且可能地南至茅利塔尼亞。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4426)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit inshore waters (Ref. 3167). Depth range to 170 m (Ref. 04426), and from 333-343 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Feed on all kinds of benthic animals (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.5 cm long and 3.0 cm wide (Ref. 41304). Minimum depth range (Ref. 117283).

栖息于近岸水域。 (参考文献 3167) 对 170 公尺 (参考文献 04426) 的深度范围, 与从 333-343 公尺在爱奥尼亚的海洋东部中.(参考文献 56504) 捕食各种的底栖动物。 (参考文献 3167) 卵生的。 明显的成对出现。 幼鱼可能倾向跟随大的个体, 例如他们的母亲.(参考文献 205) 卵为长方形鞘囊具有僵硬的触角沈积在沙滩或泥滩的角落.(参考文献 205) 卵鞘是 4.5 公分长与 3.0 公分宽的.(参考文献 41304)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Spawning peak in summer to early autumn with 30 to more than 100 egg-cases per year depending on the size of the female (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).東大西洋: 地中海的特有種但是可能擴延的到直布羅陀海峽, 摩洛哥北部而且可能地南至茅利塔尼亞。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : McEachran, John | 合作者

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  临近濒危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 16 September 2014

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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俗名
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捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
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产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 13.3 - 15.7, mean 14.3 °C (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00269 (0.00164 - 0.00442), b=3.23 (3.09 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Fec assumed to be <100).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 48.9 [5.7, 290.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.18 [0.21, 4.46] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [14.6, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.586 [0.259, 1.409] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.3 [6.2, 108.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.2 [1.2, 23.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.606 [0.157, 2.246] mg/100g (wet weight);