Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 300 m (Ref. 4426). Subtropical; 46°N - 30°N, 8°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: known only from the Mediterranean but may penetrate through the Strait of Gibraltar and possibly to northern Morocco. Some Atlantic records probably misidentifications of Raja naevus and/or Raja africana.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4426)
Range from coastal waters to about 300 m depth (Ref. 3167). Feed on all kinds of bottom animals (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). About 80-154 eggs are laid by an individual in a year (Ref. 41305).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Spawns throughout the year with maximum number of egg-cases laid in late spring and summer, embryos developing in about 4 months (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.4 - 18.4, mean 15 °C (based on 128 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00214 - 0.00537), b=3.18 (3.05 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=80).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 47 [7, 164] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.03 [0.28, 2.74] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.8 [14.8, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.664 [0.245, 1.907] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.3 [6.9, 77.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.39 [3.82, 23.04] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.634 [0.311, 1.385] mg/100g (wet weight);