Sphyrna mokarran, Great hammerhead : fisheries

Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Great hammerhead
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sphyrna mokarran   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna mokarran (Great hammerhead)
Sphyrna mokarran
Picture by University of Western Australia (UWA)

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes(Marga, Jenis) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; payau; oceanodromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 1 - 300 m (Ref. 37816), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89972).   Subtropical; 40°N - 37°S, 180°W - 180°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Uruguay, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Senegal. Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean; Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?, range 210 - 300 cm
Max length : 610 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 244); common length : 370 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 13562); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 449.5 kg (Ref. 40637); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 30 Tahun (Ref. 116211)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 0. A very large hammerhead also with a notch at the center of the head (Ref. 5578). Front margin of head gently curved in juveniles, becoming nearly straight in adults, with slight median notch (Ref. 26938). 1st dorsal fin very high and curved; 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins high and with deeply concave rear margins. Light grey or grey-brown above, white below; fins without conspicuous markings (Ref. 5578).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark, found close inshore and well offshore, over the continental shelves, island terraces, and in passes and lagoons (Ref. 244, 58302). Often bottom and reef associated at 1-80 m (Ref. 58302). Prefers to feed on stingrays and other batoids, groupers and sea catfishes, but also preys on other small bony fishes, crabs, squid, other sharks, rays, and lobsters (Ref. 244, 13562, 1602). A viviparous species, with 13-42 of about 56 to 70 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Potentially dangerous to people (Ref. 13562) but only few, if any, of the attacks on people can be definitely attributed to it because of the apparent difficulty of distinguishing large hammerhead species involved in attacks (Ref. 244). Caught occasionally by target shark longline, demersal tangle net and tuna gillnet fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized for human consumption (fresh, fresh-frozen, dried-salted, and smoked), liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hides for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Its large fins, including the tail, sail-like first dorsal fin, are prized in the Oriental sharkfin trade (Ref. 47737).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Viviparous with a yolk sac placenta and 13-42 young in a litter (Ref. 244); 6-42 pups after gestation period of ~11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50 to 70 cm TL (Ref.58048, Ref. 13562).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | mitra

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)

  sangat terancam (CR) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)


ancaman kepada manusia

Other (Ref. 244)





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: komersial
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
BRUVS
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Nutrients
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.3 - 28.9, mean 27.2 °C (based on 4410 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00131 - 0.00401), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (tmax=30; tm=8.2; Fec=13).
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.5 [1.9, 52.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.30, 3.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.6, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.396 [0.137, 1.069] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.6 [6.1, 92.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.41 [2.34, 32.61] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.472 [0.214, 1.140] mg/100g (wet weight);