Sphyrna mokarran, Great hammerhead : fisheries
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Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Great hammerhead
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Sphyrna mokarran   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna mokarran (Great hammerhead)
Sphyrna mokarran
Picture by University of Western Australia (UWA)

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes(Genus, Soort(en)) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien; brakwater; oceanodroom (Ref. 51243); diepteverspreiding 1 - 300 m (Ref. 37816), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89972).   Subtropical; 40°N - 37°S, 180°W - 180°E

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Uruguay, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Senegal. Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean; Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?, range 210 - 300 cm
Max length : 610 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 244); common length : 370 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 13562); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 449.5 kg (Ref. 40637); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 30 jaren (Ref. 116211)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 0; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 0; Anale stekels 0; Anale zachte stralen: 0. A very large hammerhead also with a notch at the center of the head (Ref. 5578). Front margin of head gently curved in juveniles, becoming nearly straight in adults, with slight median notch (Ref. 26938). 1st dorsal fin very high and curved; 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins high and with deeply concave rear margins. Light grey or grey-brown above, white below; fins without conspicuous markings (Ref. 5578).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark, found close inshore and well offshore, over the continental shelves, island terraces, and in passes and lagoons (Ref. 244, 58302). Often bottom and reef associated at 1-80 m (Ref. 58302). Prefers to feed on stingrays and other batoids, groupers and sea catfishes, but also preys on other small bony fishes, crabs, squid, other sharks, rays, and lobsters (Ref. 244, 13562, 1602). A viviparous species, with 13-42 of about 56 to 70 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Potentially dangerous to people (Ref. 13562) but only few, if any, of the attacks on people can be definitely attributed to it because of the apparent difficulty of distinguishing large hammerhead species involved in attacks (Ref. 244). Caught occasionally by target shark longline, demersal tangle net and tuna gillnet fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized for human consumption (fresh, fresh-frozen, dried-salted, and smoked), liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hides for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Its large fins, including the tail, sail-like first dorsal fin, are prized in the Oriental sharkfin trade (Ref. 47737).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Viviparous with a yolk sac placenta and 13-42 young in a litter (Ref. 244); 6-42 pups after gestation period of ~11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50 to 70 cm TL (Ref.58048, Ref. 13562).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Medewerkers

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  Ernstig bedreigd (CR) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)


Gevaarlijk voor mensen

Other (Ref. 244)





Gebruik door de mens

Visserij: commercieel
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Meer informatie

Populaire namen
Synoniemen
Metabolisme
Predators
Ecotoxicologie
Voortplanting
Geslachtsrijpheid
Kuitschieten
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eieren
Ontwikkeling van de eieren
Leeftijd/Grootte
Groei
Lengte-gewicht parameters
Lengte-lengte parameters
Lengtefrequenties
Morfometrie
Morfologie
Larven
Populatiedynamica van de larven
recrutering
Abundantie
BRUVS
Referenties
Aquacultuur
Aquacultuurprofiel
Kweeklijnen
Genetica
Alleelfrequenties
Erfelijkheid
Ziekten
Verwerking
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Medewerkers
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Geluid
Ciguatera
Snelheid
Zwemstijl
Kieuwoppervlak
Otoliths
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.3 - 28.9, mean 27.2 °C (based on 4410 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00131 - 0.00401), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 4,5-14 jaar (tmax=30; tm=8.2; Fec=13).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.5 [1.9, 52.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.30, 3.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.6, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.396 [0.137, 1.069] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.6 [6.1, 92.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.41 [2.34, 32.61] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.472 [0.214, 1.140] mg/100g (wet weight);