Sphyrna mokarran, Great hammerhead : fisheries
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Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Great hammerhead
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sphyrna mokarran   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna mokarran (Great hammerhead)
Sphyrna mokarran
Picture by University of Western Australia (UWA)

Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes(Gattung, Arten) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (Haie und Rochen) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ökologie

; seewasser; brackwasser; ozeanodrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 1 - 300 m (Ref. 37816), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89972).   Subtropical; 40°N - 37°S, 180°W - 180°E

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Uruguay, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Senegal. Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean; Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm ?, range 210 - 300 cm
Max length : 610 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 244); common length : 370 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 13562); max. veröff. Gewicht: 449.5 kg (Ref. 40637); max. veröff. Alter: 30 Jahre (Ref. 116211)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Rückenflossenstacheln (insgesamt): 0; Rückenflossenweichstrahlen (insgesamt): 0; Afterflossenstacheln 0; Afterflossenweichstrahlen: 0. A very large hammerhead also with a notch at the center of the head (Ref. 5578). Front margin of head gently curved in juveniles, becoming nearly straight in adults, with slight median notch (Ref. 26938). 1st dorsal fin very high and curved; 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins high and with deeply concave rear margins. Light grey or grey-brown above, white below; fins without conspicuous markings (Ref. 5578).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark, found close inshore and well offshore, over the continental shelves, island terraces, and in passes and lagoons (Ref. 244, 58302). Often bottom and reef associated at 1-80 m (Ref. 58302). Prefers to feed on stingrays and other batoids, groupers and sea catfishes, but also preys on other small bony fishes, crabs, squid, other sharks, rays, and lobsters (Ref. 244, 13562, 1602). A viviparous species, with 13-42 of about 56 to 70 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Potentially dangerous to people (Ref. 13562) but only few, if any, of the attacks on people can be definitely attributed to it because of the apparent difficulty of distinguishing large hammerhead species involved in attacks (Ref. 244). Caught occasionally by target shark longline, demersal tangle net and tuna gillnet fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized for human consumption (fresh, fresh-frozen, dried-salted, and smoked), liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hides for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Its large fins, including the tail, sail-like first dorsal fin, are prized in the Oriental sharkfin trade (Ref. 47737).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Viviparous with a yolk sac placenta and 13-42 young in a litter (Ref. 244); 6-42 pups after gestation period of ~11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50 to 70 cm TL (Ref.58048, Ref. 13562).

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Partner

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 123251)

  vom Aussterben bedroht (CR) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)


Bedrohung für Menschen

Other (Ref. 244)





Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: kommerziell
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mehr Information

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Metabolismus
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Ökotoxikologie
Fortpflanzung
Geschlechtsreife
Ablaichen
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
Eier
Eientwicklung
Alter/Größe
Wachstum
Länge-Gewicht
Länge-Länge
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Morphometrie
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Otoliths
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.3 - 28.9, mean 27.2 °C (based on 4410 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00131 - 0.00401), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 120179):  niedrig, Verdopplung der Population dauert 4,5 - 14 Jahre. (tmax=30; tm=8.2; Fec=13).
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.5 [1.9, 52.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.30, 3.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.6, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.396 [0.137, 1.069] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.6 [6.1, 92.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.41 [2.34, 32.61] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.472 [0.214, 1.140] mg/100g (wet weight);