Sphyrna mokarran, Great hammerhead : fisheries
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Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Great hammerhead
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Sphyrna mokarran   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sphyrna mokarran (Great hammerhead)
Sphyrna mokarran
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes(部類, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

板鰓亜鋼(サメとエイ類) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 汽水性の; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 1 - 300 m (Ref. 37816), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89972).   Subtropical; 40°N - 37°S, 180°W - 180°E

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Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Uruguay, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Senegal. Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean; Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm ?, range 210 - 300 cm
Max length : 610 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 244); common length : 370 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 13562); 最大公表体重: 449.5 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大記録サイズ: 30 年 (Ref. 116211)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 0; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 0. A very large hammerhead also with a notch at the center of the head (Ref. 5578). Front margin of head gently curved in juveniles, becoming nearly straight in adults, with slight median notch (Ref. 26938). 1st dorsal fin very high and curved; 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins high and with deeply concave rear margins. Light grey or grey-brown above, white below; fins without conspicuous markings (Ref. 5578).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark, found close inshore and well offshore, over the continental shelves, island terraces, and in passes and lagoons (Ref. 244, 58302). Often bottom and reef associated at 1-80 m (Ref. 58302). Prefers to feed on stingrays and other batoids, groupers and sea catfishes, but also preys on other small bony fishes, crabs, squid, other sharks, rays, and lobsters (Ref. 244, 13562, 1602). A viviparous species, with 13-42 of about 56 to 70 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Potentially dangerous to people (Ref. 13562) but only few, if any, of the attacks on people can be definitely attributed to it because of the apparent difficulty of distinguishing large hammerhead species involved in attacks (Ref. 244). Caught occasionally by target shark longline, demersal tangle net and tuna gillnet fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized for human consumption (fresh, fresh-frozen, dried-salted, and smoked), liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hides for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Its large fins, including the tail, sail-like first dorsal fin, are prized in the Oriental sharkfin trade (Ref. 47737).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Viviparous with a yolk sac placenta and 13-42 young in a litter (Ref. 244); 6-42 pups after gestation period of ~11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50 to 70 cm TL (Ref.58048, Ref. 13562).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 協力者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 123251)

  絶滅寸前の危機的状況 (CR) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)


人間に対する脅威

Other (Ref. 244)





Human uses

水産業: 商業
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.3 - 28.9, mean 27.2 °C (based on 4410 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00131 - 0.00401), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低い, 4.5年~14年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (tmax=30; tm=8.2; Fec=13).
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.5 [1.9, 52.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.30, 3.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.6, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.396 [0.137, 1.069] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.6 [6.1, 92.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.41 [2.34, 32.61] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.472 [0.214, 1.140] mg/100g (wet weight);