Sphyrna mokarran, Great hammerhead : fisheries

Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837)

Great hammerhead
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Sphyrna mokarran   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Sphyrna mokarran
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 300 m (Ref. 37816), usually 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89972).   亞熱帶的; 40°N - 37°S, 180°W - 180°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Circumglobal in coastal warm temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Uruguay, including the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Morocco to Senegal. Indo-Pacific: throughout the Indian Ocean; Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Mexico to Peru. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
環球分佈於海岸的暖溫帶與熱帶的海洋.(參考文獻 13562) 西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到烏拉圭, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海。 東大西洋: 地中海與摩洛哥到塞內加爾。 印度-太平洋: 在印度洋各處; 琉球群島到新加勒多尼亞與法屬玻里尼西亞。 東太平洋: 墨西哥的下加利福尼亞南部到祕魯。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 210 - 300 cm
Max length : 610 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 244); common length : 370 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 13562); 最大体重: 449.5 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年龄: 30 年 (Ref. 116211)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0. A very large hammerhead also with a notch at the center of the head (Ref. 5578). Front margin of head gently curved in juveniles, becoming nearly straight in adults, with slight median notch (Ref. 26938). 1st dorsal fin very high and curved; 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins high and with deeply concave rear margins. Light grey or grey-brown above, white below; fins without conspicuous markings (Ref. 5578).
非常大的 hammerhead 在头部的中心也有一个凹槽。 (参考文献 5578) 逐渐地在稚鱼, 变成几乎是直当成鱼时, 被弯曲的头部的前缘有轻微的中央凹槽。 (参考文献 26938) 第一背鳍很高的而且弯曲; 第二背鳍与腹鳍高的而且深深地具有凹的后缘。 浅灰色或背面灰褐色的, 腹面白色的; 没有显着的斑纹的鳍.(参考文献 5578)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

A coastal-pelagic, semi-oceanic shark, found close inshore and well offshore, over the continental shelves, island terraces, and in passes and lagoons (Ref. 244, 58302). Often bottom and reef associated at 1-80 m (Ref. 58302). Prefers to feed on stingrays and other batoids, groupers and sea catfishes, but also preys on other small bony fishes, crabs, squid, other sharks, rays, and lobsters (Ref. 244, 13562, 1602). A viviparous species, with 13-42 of about 56 to 70 cm young in a litter (Ref. 26938, 1602). Potentially dangerous to people (Ref. 13562) but only few, if any, of the attacks on people can be definitely attributed to it because of the apparent difficulty of distinguishing large hammerhead species involved in attacks (Ref. 244). Caught occasionally by target shark longline, demersal tangle net and tuna gillnet fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized for human consumption (fresh, fresh-frozen, dried-salted, and smoked), liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hides for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Its large fins, including the tail, sail-like first dorsal fin, are prized in the Oriental sharkfin trade (Ref. 47737).

沿岸及大洋性, 半-大洋性的鲨鱼,被发现的近岸与相当外海, 遍及大陆棚,岛成梯形地, 与在海峡与舄湖中.(参考文献 244) 偏爱觅食魟与其他的鳐,鲈科鱼类与海洋鲶鱼, 也捕食其他的小硬骨鱼类,螃蟹,乌贼,其他的鲨鱼,魟与龙虾.(参考文献 244,13562,1602) 一个胎生的种, 与大约 56 到 70 公分中的 13-42 幼鱼在一胎。 (参考文献 26938,1602) 对人类可能有危险性 (参考文献 13562) 但是唯一的很少, 如果任何的, 对人的攻击可能是归因于它明确的由于区分被关係到攻擊的大的 hammerhead 種的明顯困難.(參考文獻 244) 肉供人類消費使用了 (生鮮魚肉,生鮮冷凍,乾燥鹽醃, 而且煙燻), 肝油用於維他命,鰭用於湯,皮用做皮革與殘骸用於魚粉.(參考文獻 244)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Viviparous with a yolk sac placenta and 13-42 young in a litter (Ref. 244); 6-42 pups after gestation period of ~11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50 to 70 cm TL (Ref.58048, Ref. 13562).環球分佈於海岸的暖溫帶與熱帶的海洋.(參考文獻 13562) 西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到烏拉圭, 包括墨西哥灣與加勒比海。 東大西洋: 地中海與摩洛哥到塞內加爾。 印度-太平洋: 在印度洋各處; 琉球群島到新加勒多尼亞與法屬玻里尼西亞。 東太平洋: 墨西哥的下加利福尼亞南部到祕魯。 高度遷移的種,1982年海事法會議的附件一.(參考文獻 26139)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  极度濒危 (CR) (A2bd); Date assessed: 09 November 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)


对人类的威胁

另外地 (Ref. 244)





人类利用

渔业: 商业性
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

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孕卵数

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.3 - 28.9, mean 27.2 °C (based on 4410 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00229 (0.00131 - 0.00401), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (tmax=30; tm=8.2; Fec=13).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 12.5 [1.9, 52.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.04 [0.30, 3.03] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.6, 21.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.396 [0.137, 1.069] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.6 [6.1, 92.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 8.41 [2.34, 32.61] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.472 [0.214, 1.140] mg/100g (wet weight);