Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays)
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marinhas demersal; intervalo de profundidade 100 - 400 m (Ref. 3167). Subtropical
Northeast Atlantic: known only from the western Mediterranean, more common along the African coasts.
Tamanho / Peso / Idade
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 3167)
Found mainly on soft bottoms (Ref. 3167). Feed mainly on crustaceans and bony fishes depending on the sex, size and also partly with the season (Ref. 3167). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). About 20-62 eggs are laid by an individual in a year (Ref. 41314).
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Ripe females occurring mostly in the winter and deposit 20 to 62 egg-cases per year depending on size (Ref. 3167). Distinct pairing with embrace. Y oung may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Ameaça para o homem
ReferênciasAquaculturaPerfil para aquaculturaEstirpesGenéticaFrequência dos alelosHereditariedadeDoençasProcessamentoNutrientsMass conversion
Fontes da internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.1 - 15.1, mean 14 °C (based on 40 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00170 (0.00095 - 0.00303), b=3.28 (3.13 - 3.43), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 10.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179
): Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (Fec=20).
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.9 [6.3, 141.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.94 [0.25, 2.38] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.4 [14.4, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.638 [0.235, 1.810] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.7 [6.5, 67.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.5 [5.0, 35.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.695 [0.341, 1.567] mg/100g (wet weight);