Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Africa: East coast rivers and estuaries south to Algoa Bay. Also known Somaliland (Gulf of Aden including Somalia, Djibouti, and southeastern Ethiopia) and Madagascar (Ref. 4343).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
soft rays: 10 - 111. Diagnosis: palate without teeth; no spines on preopercle; dorsal fin with normal first spines; fleshy process below opercle; caudal fin not longer than head; no scales on opercle (Ref. 79840). Greenish with blotches on back and side (Ref. 2798).
Coloration: generally olive green on back, paler on flanks, and greenish-greyish ventrally; brownish spots on back and flanks; caudal fin with small brown spots; brownish bands between mouth and eyes (Ref. 79840).
Inhabits rivers and estuaries, including quiet swift water (Ref. 4967, 79840). Sometimes abundant in lagoons (Ref. 4967).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eccles, D.H., 1992. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Tanzania. Prepared and published with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (project URT/87/016). FAO, Rome. 145 p. (Ref. 4967)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00457 - 0.01587), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .