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Johnius borneensis (Bleeker, 1851)

Sharpnose hammer croaker
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Johnius borneensis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Johnius borneensis (Sharpnose hammer croaker)
Johnius borneensis
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Malaysia country information

Common names: Croaker, Gelama tukul, Gelama
Occurrence: native
Salinity: freshwater
Abundance: | Ref:
Importance: | Ref:
Aquaculture: | Ref:
Regulations: | Ref:
Uses: no uses
Comments: Also Ref. 5756.
National Checklist:
Country Information:
National Fisheries Authority:
Occurrences: Occurrences Point map
Main Ref: Mohsin, A.K.M. and M.A. Ambak, 1996
National Database:

Common names from other countries

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc () > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
  More on author: Bleeker.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 132 m (Ref. 57178).   Tropical; 30°N - 36°S, 32°E - 155°E (Ref. 56999)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf eastward to southern China and Taiwan and northern and northeastern Australia and New Guinea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 15.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55968); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10 - 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 27-32; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 7 - 8. Snout rounded but not swollen or projecting; mouth large, oblique; upper jaw extending backward below posterior half of eye; no barbel on chin; teeth in narrow bands, well differentiated into large and small in both jaws, but none canine-like; gill rakers slender, about half length of gill filaments at angle of arch, 9 to 15 on lower limb. Second anal spine moderately long, 24 to 42 % of head length. Scales on head cycloid (smooth). Swim bladder hammer-shaped, the first pair of arborescent appendages entering head beyond transverse septum and sending a palmate branch to the front of pectoral arch. Sagitta (large earstone) with a tadpole-shaped impression, the head of which has its long axis lying obliquely to that of sagitta and the tail expanded and deepened as a hallow cone connected with the head by narrow groove.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits shallow coastal waters, estuaries, and rivers. In India, matures at the size of 14 to 16 cm TL; attains an average size of 15.8 cm TL, 20.6 cm TL, and 24 cm TL, at the end of 1 year, 1.5 years and 2 years, respectively. Juveniles prefer crustaceans and as they grow , show piscivorous tendency (Ref. 9772). Marketed fresh and dried salted (Ref. 3490).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Sasaki, K., 2001. Sciaenidae. Croakers (drums). p.3117-3174. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). Rome, FAO. pp. 2791-3380. (Ref. 9772)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 27 September 2018

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.6 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2424 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00339 - 0.00741), b=3.11 (2.99 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5-0.8).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.