Diagnosis: Chiloglanis kolente is distinguished from C. waterloti and C. longibarbis in having more mandibular teeth in the functional row, and is distinguished from C. camarabounyi, C. dialloi, C. loffabrevum, C. tweddlei, C. lamottei, C. pezoldi, and C. polyodon in having fewer mandibular teeth in the functional row; it is easily distinguished from Chiloglanis aff. micropogon in having moderately long mandibular barbels vs. absent or reduced barbels; it is distinguished from C. normani in having males without sexually dimorphic caudal and anal fins; it is distinguished from C. occidentalis and C. nzerekore in having shorter dorsal and pectoral spines; it can be distinguished from C. kabaensis in having longer maxillary barbels, longer lateral mandibular barbels, and in attaining a smaller maximum standard length (Ref. 116018).
Description: A small Chiloglanis, 25.7 mm maximum observed standard length; body dorsally depressed anteriorly; laterally compressed posteriorly; pre-dorsal convex; sharply sloping ventrally towards nares; pre-orbital sloping sharply to snout; post-dorsal body angles ventrally towards caudal fin; pre-anal profile horizontal; post-anal profile concave (Ref. 116018). Small unculiferous tubercles scattered across body; higher concentrations on head and dorsum; lateral line complete; originating above level of orbit; sloping ventrally to body midline towards caudal peduncle; urogenital papillae sexually dimorphic; elongated in males; reduced and separated from anus by shallow invagination in females (Ref. 116018). Head depressed; gill membranes broadly united; gill openings restricted; opening near pectoral-fin origin to level of mid-orbit; occipital-nuchal shield covered and visible through skin; eyes moderate; located mid-head length; horizontal axis longest; orbit without free margins; anterior and posterior nares mid-snout; posterior nares set slightly further apart than anterior; nares with raised rims; posterior nares with elongate anterior and medial flaps (Ref. 116018). Mouth inferior; upper and lower lips united to form oral disc; oral disc moderate, width 18.4-25.0% of standard length; wider than long and covered in papillae (Ref. 116018). Barbels in three pairs; maxillary barbel originating from posterolateral region of disc; unbranched and moderate in length, 17.5-26.7% of head length; lateral and medial mandibular barbels moderate; incorporated into lower lip and positioned on both sides of prominent midline cleft on posterior margin of oral disc; lateral barbels, 10.0-15.2% of head length, usually twice the length of medial barbels (Ref. 116018). Primary premaxillary teeth "S"-shaped with exposed brown tips; 37-72 teeth in three rows on two ovoid tooth pads; secondary premaxillary teeth scattered on posterior surface of premaxillae; tertiary premaxillary teeth small and needle-like; near midline of dorsal edge of toothplate; mandibular teeth arranged in 1-2 rows; "S"-shaped and bunched near midline; functional, anterior, row usually contains 10 brown-tipped teeth (Ref. 116018). Dorsal-fin origin just posterior to anterior third of body; dorsal fin with small spinelet, spine, and 4-5 rays; dorsal spine relatively short, 11.4-16.3% of standard length; anterior margin with small notches distally, posterior margin smooth; adipose fin moderate in length, 12.8-19.5% of standard length; margin convex; caudal fin forked with rounded lobes; lower lobe slightly longer than upper lobe; count i,7,8,i; anal-fin origin posterior to origin of adipose fin; extending beyond adipose-fin terminus; margin convex; count iii,5-7; pelvic-fin origin at vertical between dorsal and adipose fin; margins convex; count i,6; pectoral fin with smooth spine; relatively short, 15.2-19.2% of standard length; count I,7-9 (Ref. 116018). Postclethral process sexually dimorphic; males with an elongate spatulate process; females with a shorter and pointed process; body size sexually dimorphic; females attaining a slightly larger body size (Ref. 116018).
Colouration: Dorsal view: body medium brown; patches of light-brown to cream at origin of dorsal fin, and origin and terminus of adipose fin; head medium brown with light unculiferous tubercles (Ref. 116018). Lateral view: ground colour cream with overlying areas of medium brown; areas of light brown extend ventrally along sides, dark melanophores across the body, more visible in light brown and cream areas; light areas on dorsum extend ventrally through caudal peduncle and near origin of anal fin; ventral surface cream with melanophores on margin; oral disc and barbels cream (Ref. 116018). Pectoral and dorsal spines and rays cream to translucent; few melanophores at base of pectoral fin; brown melanophores at mid-length; base of dorsal fin with triangular area of dark brown melanophores; dark brown area at mid-length of dorsal rays; anal fin cream to translucent; medium brown area at base and mid-length; pelvic fins cream with no markings; adipose fin cream to translucent; medium brown area at origin and near mid-length; caudal fin cream to translucent with two dark brown areas; one in the upper lobe and one in the lower lobe (Ref. 116018).