Morphology Data of Himantura australis
Identification keys
Main Ref. Last, P.R., W.T. White and G. Naylor, 2016
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral other (see remarks)
Cross section flattened
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales placoid scales

This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: the disc is weakly rhomboidal; preorbital snout is moderately short, its length 19-22% DW and rather broad, angle 117-127°, with a distinct apical lobe; lateral apices are narrowly rounded; the orbits moderately large, usually strongly protruding (particularly in young); 1-2, mostly heart-shaped suprascapular denticles which are not preceded before and after by a row of smaller primary denticles; secondary denticle band is developed before birth; dorsal surface of juveniles (smaller than 370 mm DW) are dark spotted or with spots and weak reticulations, subadults and adults (exceeding 390 mm DW) are more strongly reticulated; dorsal tail of juveniles has 3 rows of spots before caudal sting, faint dark saddles beyond sting (no alternating black and white bands on tail); tail uniformly dark ventrally; 146-152 pectoral-fin radials; 123 vertebral centra (excluding synarcual), 24 including synarcual 124 (Ref. 110363)

Description: Similar to another Australasian species H. leoparda, but differ in coloration with Himantura australis having a more reticulated pattern on the dorsal disc in adults, with few suprascapular denticles and with broader snout in young and mostly in adults. It differs from

H. undulata in having smaller reticulations, less elongated snout, and absence of a pair of pearl-shaped suprascapular denticles which are characteristic of H. undulata (Ref. 110363).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Himantura australis

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total
Soft-rays total
Adipose fin

Caudal fin


Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  
Pelvics Attributes  
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily
Modified by Bailly, Nicolas
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