Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Monacanthidae
Etymology: Pseudomonacanthus: Greek, pseudes = false + Greek,monos = one + Greek, akantha = thorn (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 10 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Indian Ocean, South China Sea, southern Japan. Reported from Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6771).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48637); common length : 13.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12517)
Inhabits shallow coastal algal reefs and estuaries. Sometimes solitary (Ref. 90102). Adults are often in pairs (Ref. 48637).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kuiter, R.H., 1992. Tropical reef-fishes of the western Pacific Indonesia and adjacent waters. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta. 314 p. (Ref. 8631)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.4 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 2110 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00681 - 0.02028), b=2.83 (2.68 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .