Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 9 - 108 m (Ref. 5499), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Southeast Atlantic: Cape to Algoa Bay, South Africa. Reported as likely at Seychelles (Ref. 1623) but Randall and van Egmond 1994 (Ref. 10685) believe otherwise.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5499)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Common in rotenone collections.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poss, S.G., 1986. Tetrarogidae. p. 479. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5499)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.7 - 22.3, mean 18.1 °C (based on 26 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.00769 - 0.04510), b=3.01 (2.80 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .