Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 20 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical
Western Central Pacific: Philippines, Borneo, Singapore, Celebes, Papua New Guinea, New Georgia and Australia from the Northwest Shelf to Brisbane.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); max. published weight: 655.00 g (Ref. 3132)
soft rays: 11. Prominent pit present behind upper eye. Preopercular spines short, upper two subequal. Infraorbital ridge usually smooth over eye. Suborbital ridge bearing 1 spine below rear of eye. Dorsal fin IX or I,VIII. Dermal papillae (usually 6-9 in adults) on upper surface of eye, longest branched and reaching well above supraorbital ridge. Short dark streaks usually crossing rays in dorsal and caudal fins.
Inhabits shallow rocky coastal areas frequently associated with seaweed beds and mangroves, most commonly at depths of less than 5 m (Ref. 9790). Also found on sand bottoms (Ref. 3132).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and R. Swainston, 1988. The marine fishes of north-western Australia: a field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australian Museum, Perth. 201 p. (Ref. 3132)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 2366 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00428 - 0.01346), b=3.05 (2.89 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100).