Trigonostigma heteromorpha, Harlequin rasbora : aquarium

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Trigonostigma heteromorpha (Duncker, 1904)

Harlequin rasbora
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Trigonostigma heteromorpha
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Danionidae (Danios) > Rasborinae
Etymology: Trigonostigma: Greek, tres, tria = three + Greek, gonias= angle, corner + Greek stigma = signal.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 5.0 - 7.0; dH range: 5 - 12.   Tropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 1672)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Asia: Malay Peninsula: Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13061)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total): 7; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 6. This species is shares with T. truncata, presence of a large black axine starting from approximately mid-body with dorsal apex near dorsal-fin origin, ventral apex near pelvic-fin origin, and caudal apex near caudal-fin base. It differs from all its congeners in the following set of characters: a steep sloping lateral head to pre-dorsal region (shared with T. espei, vs. a gentle sloping lateral profile from posterior of head to predorsal region for T. truncata, T. hengeli, T. somphongsi); terminal mouth (shared with all except truncata with a sub-superior mouth); caudal apex of axine reaching caudal-fin base (shared with all except truncata with caudal apex not reaching); dorsal and ventral apices of axine originate near to both dorsal-fin and pelvic-fin origins (shared with truncata vs. dorsal apex starting up to 3 scale-width posterior to dorsal-fin origin and ventral apex starting two scale-width after pelvic-fin origin in espei, hengeli, while axine is reduced to thick black stripe in somphongsi); dorsal fin with distinct orange/red pigments shared with truncata, espei (vs. hengeli, somphongsi with almost hyaline dorsal fin) (Ref. 122370).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits forest streams (Ref. 13061). Found in primary peat swamps in larger than 100 fish (Ref. 57235). Feeds on worms, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 7020). Eggs spawned at the underside of broad leaves and similar structures (Ref. 38434). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size 60 cm (Ref. 51539). Previously known as "Rasbora" but revised as separated genus by Kottelat & Witte (1999) (Ref. 57235).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Tan, H.H., 2020. Trigonostigma truncata, a new species of harlequin rasbora from Malay Peninsula (Teleostei: Danionidae). Raff. Bull. Zool. 68:421-433. (Ref. 122370)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 25 February 2011

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Aquarium: highly commercial
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .