Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Polynemidae
Etymology: Polydactylus: Greek, poly = a lot of + greek, daktylos = finger (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 55 m (Ref. 26912). Tropical; 41°N - 14°S, 93°W - 35°W (Ref. 57343)
Western Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Salvador, Brazil. Reported to range to Uruguay (Ref. 9626). Not occurring in the northern and western Gulf of Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57343); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3796)
Found on sandy and muddy bottoms of coastal waters, estuaries and mangroves, and occasionally in the surf (Ref. 57343). Young aggregate near river mouths (Ref. 57343). Common around islands (Ref. 9710). Nocturnal feeder, taking crustaceans, chaetognaths, plant material, and polychaetes (Ref. 57343). May have a prolonged spawning season (Ref. 57343).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Motomura, H., 2004. Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p. (Ref. 57343)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26.4 °C (based on 440 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00554 - 0.00826), b=3.10 (3.05 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 251 [123, 440] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.31 [0.72, 2.45] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.9, 20.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.535 [0.278, 1.061] g/100g ; Selenium = 69.2 [31.8, 151.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.6 [7.3, 38.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.49 [1.00, 2.50] mg/100g (wet weight);