Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 11°S - 18°S
Africa: Okavango and upper Zambezi systems (Ref. 7248). Also reported from the southern Congo River basin in Angola (Ref. 120641) but without further details. Very similar to the largescale yellowfish and may represent the same species (Ref. 7248).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248); max. published weight: 3.2 kg (Ref. 2801)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Prefers fast water with rocky bottom and seldom occurs over sand or in aquatic vegetation (Ref. 13337). Feeds on aquatic insect larvae, crustaceans, mollusks and small fish (Ref. 13337).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .