Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 70 m (Ref. 89444), usually 15 - 35 m (Ref. 28787). Deep-water; 0°C -
Southwestern Pacific: Restricted to New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 76814)
Nocturnally active; inhabits cracks and crevices during the day. Feeds on small mobile benthic organisms (Ref. 26966), by drifting up to its prey and swallowing it whole with a sideways snap of the large extensible mouth (Ref. 26966).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.6 - 23.2, mean 17.9 °C (based on 28 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00456 - 0.02002), b=2.99 (2.80 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 4.72 [1.72, 11.80] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.147 [0.073, 0.323] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [16.9, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.186 [0.073, 0.452] g/100g ; Selenium = 11 [4, 28] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 72.7 [14.7, 338.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.429 [0.263, 0.734] mg/100g (wet weight);