Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Anabantiformes
(Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae
(Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Betta: Malay/Javanese origin. Bleeker (1850, 1858) indicates Ikan Wadder Bettah as the local name of Betta trifasciata Bleeker, 1849 (now Betta picta, Valenciennes, 1846) in the Ambarawa Javanese dialect. Ikan Wader is a common Javanese name for smaller freshwater fishes, especially cyprinids (already used in Old Javanese). See Blust, R. & Trussel, S. Austronesian Comparative Dictionary. Web Edition (https://www.trussel2.com/acd/)..
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.1 - 7.6; dH range: 5 - 12. Tropical; 24°C - 28°C (Ref. 1672)
Asia: Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56613)
(total): 0 - 2;
soft rays: 24 - 26;
Vertebrae: 28 - 31. A member of the Betta pugnax species group that can be differentiated from other members by the following combination of characters: presence of chin-bar; absence of dark marks below postorbital stripe on opercle; presence of dorsal transverse bars; caudal transverse bars present only in male; greenish to bluish iridescent scales on opercle and body; red subdistal band and black edge on anal fin; absence of dark edge on caudal fin; anal fin rays 25-28 (mode 26); lateral scales 28-31 (mode 29); postdorsal scales 11-12 (mode 11); pelvic fin length 26.6-43.8% SL; head length 27.5-35.2% SL; inter-orbital width 32.4-53.0% HL (Ref. 56613).
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Occurs in small fast flowing forest streams (Ref. 13061). Inhabits mainly overhanging bank vegetation, submerged leaf litter and exposed roots of bank vegetation (Ref. 13220, 56613). Mouth brooder (Ref. 13061).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawns in a depression on the substrate. Male broods the eggs in his mouth until hatching (Ref. 13061). Produces a minimum of 100 eggs (Ref. 1672).
Tan, H.H. and S.H. Tan, 1996. Redescription of the Malaysian fighting fish Betta pugnax (Teleostei: Belontiidae), and description of Betta pulchra, new species from Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 44(2):419-434. (Ref. 13220)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00977 (0.00364 - 0.02626), b=2.97 (2.74 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Produces a minimum of 100 eggs (Ref. 1672
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).