Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Asia: Maeklong (Ref. 26336), Mekong and Chao Phraya basins (Ref. 12693).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30857); max. published weight: 300.0 kg (Ref. 10431)
(total): 0. Head very large, about 2.5 times in SL; no barbels; no dorsal spine; 90-110 long gill rakers on first gill arch (Ref. 43281).
Found in large rivers and seasonally in canals and floodplains (Ref. 12693). Adults prefer big pools in the Mekong at least part of the year while juveniles are mostly seen in swamps and small tributaries, from where they are sometimes collected and stocked in ponds (Ref. 37770). The young can acclimatize to live in ponds, canals and swamps. A migratory species (Ref. 37772). Enters flooded forest (Ref. 9497). Young individuals occur in October in the lower Mekong basin (Ref. 12975). Feeds on algae, phytoplankton and fruits of inundated terrestrial plants (Ref. 12693) and detritus (Ref. 58784). Its numbers have declined seriously. Individual fishes rarely survive to reach reproductive maturity. Its catch should be strictly regulated by size. A very desirable food fish, sometimes eaten fresh or pickled (Ref. 12693). Maximum length of 300 cm needs confirmation. Threatened due to over harvesting and habitat loss (Ref. 58490).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rainboth, W.J., 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tm=5-10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .