Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 27°N -
Western Central Atlantic: The Bahamas, Cayman Islands, and Antilles south to Venezuela and Colombia (Ref. 092840).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 2.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits shallow areas with clear water and coral formations (Ref. 13628), often in close association with the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. Possesses a ventral sucking disk which allows it to adhere to the rock beneath the test of an urchin with only the head showing among the spines of urchins. When disturbed they retreat farther beneath the urchin, and if the urchin is removed it rapidly darts beneath the test of a neighboring one. Feeds mainly on the tube feet of sea urchins (Ref. 33548)..
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 28.2, mean 27.5 °C (based on 600 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00475 - 0.02204), b=3.03 (2.85 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 336 [147, 857] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.32 [0.70, 2.61] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.4, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.193 [0.085, 0.405] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.5 [8.5, 45.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 142 [35, 517] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.7 [1.5, 4.6] mg/100g (wet weight);