Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Pomacentridae
(Damselfishes) > Pomacentrinae
Etymology: Parma: Latin, parma, -ae = a little shield. More on authors: Allen & Hoese.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 40 m (Ref. 7247), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 30°S - 40°S
Southwest Pacific: Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand, and Kermadec Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7247)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Adults inhabit rocky reefs. Feed on algae (Ref. 26966). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 16.8 - 22.1, mean 18.3 °C (based on 24 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01039 - 0.04607), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 34.6 [18.0, 69.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.969 [0.533, 1.732] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [18, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.166 [0.091, 0.293] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.7 [5.8, 30.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 30.5 [6.4, 135.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.17 [0.71, 1.93] mg/100g (wet weight);