Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30464)
A plankton-picking species completely lacking teeth, they live in surface layers, rarely leaving the upper few meters of water, swimming rapidly and continuously (Ref. 30464).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00594 - 0.03681), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 37.3 [19.1, 83.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.475 [0.272, 1.029] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.2, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.55 [0.29, 1.00] g/100g ; Selenium = 11.5 [5.1, 26.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.4 [1.6, 27.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.776 [0.492, 1.230] mg/100g (wet weight);