Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 86942). Temperate
Southwest Pacific: southern half of Australia on both coast, east to Lord Howe Islands, Norfolk Islands, northern New Zealand, and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 33839); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
(total): 10 - 11;
soft rays: 10 - 12;
Vertebrae: 26. This species is distinguished by the following characters: in lateral view, body is oval to circular, not compressed; head with distinct slanting profile from interorbital region to tip of snout, with characteristic bulb anterior-dorsally of eye, giving a protruding head profile; D X-XI,11-12: A II-III, 10-12; first gill-arch with 3-7 gill rakers on upper part, 10-15 on the lower part; total lateral line scales 52-66, 42-56 are pored; longitudinal scales 48-57; vertebrae: precaudal 11, caudal 15; pterygiophores: dorsal 20-21, anal 12; interorbital region with scales (Ref. 95491).
Occurs in large schools in comparatively shallow water in the vicinity of rocky reefs. Feeds on weeds (Ref. 2156).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knudsen, S.W. and K.D. Clements, 2013. Revision of the fish family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Zootaxa 3751(1):001-101. (Ref. 95491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.8 - 23.3, mean 17.9 °C (based on 152 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00942 - 0.03853), b=3.02 (2.84 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .